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AWS B1.10M/B1.

10:2009
An American National Standard

Guide for the
Nondestructive
Examination
of Welds

10M/B1. and leak testing. magnetic particle. 550 N. Miami. 2009 Guide for the Nondestructive Examination of Welds 4th Edition Supersedes AWS B1.W. liquid penetrant. FL 33126 .10:1999 Prepared by the American Welding Society (AWS) B1 Committee on Methods of Inspection Under the Direction of the AWS Technical Activities Committee Approved by the AWS Board of Directors Abstract This guide acquaints the user with the nondestructive examination methods commonly used to examine weldments. electromagnetic (eddy current). The methods included are visual. LeJeune Road.10:2009 An American National Standard Approved by the American National Standards Institute July 1.AWS B1. ultrasonic. radiographic. The standard also addresses which method best detects various types of discontinuities.

............................................................10 Lamination..............................................................................................6 NDE Symbols .1 1.................................................................................................................................17 Weld Reinforcement .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................24 5...........................................................................................................................................................................................l Visual (VT) ............................................................15 5...................... Discontinuities..................................7 Safety and Health..................................... General ......................................................................................................................................................8 4....................9 4.................................................................................................................................................14 5......2 1..................................................................... Discontinuities...........................................................................................................................8 4..6 Incomplete Joint Penetration ........8 4........4 Cost ...........................................14 4................................................................................................2 1.................... Personnel ..................2 2.1 Scope..................................................................................................................................................................................................10 4........................................3 4......................................................................5 Incomplete Fusion ........................................................................................1 1..........................................14 4...........................10 4.................................................................................................. Nondestructive Examination Methods ...............................xi 1..............5 Ultrasonic (UT).............................................................9 Overlap .........5 Procedures.................... and Examination Methods....18 5...........12 Seams or Laps.......................................................................................1 1............................3 Porosity .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7 Undercut .........vii List of Tables..............................................1 1.........................................................9 4..............................................................................................................4 4......................................................................................................................................29 5.........2 4..................................................................................................................................13 Lamellar Tear.......6 4............................................................................4 Radiographic (RT) ...............................................................................11 4..........10:2009 Table of Contents Page No..................................................................11 Delamination....16 Convexity ............................................................................2 List of Discontinuities ........................................4 Inclusions..........................................8 Underfill.........................................AWS B1................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3 Magnetic Particle (MT) ...............................................................................xi List of Figures.....................................................................14 Cracks .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 1..........................20 5......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Interrelationships Among Welding Processes................................6 Electromagnetic (ET)............................................................................................................2 4..........................................................7 Leak (LT) ...........31 6.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................9 4................................................................................................................... Terms and Definitions ...............................................................32 ix ......2 4.......................2 1...............................................................3 Acceptance Standards...........................................2 Advantages and Limitations of the Examination Method ...................................................................................15 Concavity ...................................................................15 5...............v Foreword........10M/B1...........................................2 Liquid Penetrant (PT) .......2 3.........................................................16 5..............................................................................................................................................................................1 Discussion of Discontinuities ...............11 4...............................................................................................................................................8 Standard Units of Measurement .... Normative References .............................................................................................

........................................ Annex A (Informative)—Examination Method Selection Guide..............10M/B1.......................37 Annex C (Informative)—Typical Industry Standards ...................10:2009 Page No................................................................................................................51 x ...................................................................................................................35 Annex B (Informative)—NDE Symbols and Abbreviations...........................................................................47 Annex E (Informative)—Informative References ...AWS B1..........................................................................49 List of AWS Documents on Weld Inspection........................45 Annex D (Informative)—Guidelines for the Preparation of Technical Inquiries................................

............... Pulse-Echo Flaw Detector ....7 Single-Bevel-Groove Weld in Butt Joint...........................................................................................................................................................................................19 Indirect Magnetization Using a Yoke...10M/B1........ Common Types of Discontinuities......................................27 Discontinuity...................................................................24 Similarities Between Reflections of Light and Sound at Boundaries .............................................13 Common Weld Examination Methods vs...................................................................................................25 Diffraction ................38 Standard Location of the Elements in the Nondestructive Examination Symbol .....................................7 Single Pass Double Fillet Weld in T-Joint.....................................19 Making a Radiograph............11 Groove Weld Discontinuities ...................10 Groove Weld Terminology................30 Typical Eddy Current Surface Probes for the Examination of Welds.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Page No..........33 Applicable Examination Methods—Five Weld Joint Types ..........9 Fillet Weld Discontinuities....................28 Eddy Current Weld Examination ..................................................................................................................................................3 Discontinuities Commonly Encountered with Welding Processes ...............................................................................................6 Double Fillet Weld in Lap Joint .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................33 List of Figures Figure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 B......................................................................................38 xi ............................................................................................................................23 Block Diagram...................................................................22 Detection of Planar Discontinuities at Various Orientations by Radiography...........................................................................................................................................................................................10:2009 List of Tables Table 1 2 3 4 Page No.....................................................................25 Refraction............................................AWS B1....................................17 Magnetic Field Leakage...................................................................................................................................28 Backing Bar False Indication ...........................................................21 Radiographs of Weld Discontinuities and Macrosections .... Double-V-Groove Weld in Butt Joint.....................................................5 Double-Bevel-Groove Weld in T-Joint.............................................................................................................8 Fillet Weld Terminology ..........................................................................29 Encircling Coil for the Eddy Current Examination of Welded Pipe .........................................................26 Example of Longitudinal Testing...........................................................................31 Supplementary Nondestructive Examination Symbols..................................................................................................... Discontinuities ............................................................................................................4 Single-Bevel-Groove and Fillet Welds in Corner Joint..........................................................................................18 Direct Magnetization Using dc Prods ......27 No Discontinuities......................................................................................................................................12 Steps in Penetrant Testing .....................................1 B...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Requirements for nondestructive examination and acceptance criteria should be specified in procurement documents prior to the award of contracts.1. ASME Boiler and Pressure Code. Principal factors to consider when choosing an examination method are the advantages and limitations of the method. These and other construction standards are shown in Annex C. radiography can detect discontinuities with major planes aligned parallel with the radiation beam. Among these are: nondestructive evaluation (NDE). Annex A is a guide to process selection. Nondestructive examination (NDE) is a general term used in this text to identify the common examination methods used for evaluation of welds and related materials without destroying their usefulness. and orientation. In other standards.1 Scope. usually cannot detect laminations in material or cracks oriented parallel to the plate surface. Acceptance standards define characteristics of discontinuities and state whether particular types of discontinuities are allowed. Most codes and specifications such as AWS D1. The statement “the weld shall be radiographically examined” is incomplete unless acceptance standards are specified. literature. and industry usage.AWS B1. Radiography. shape. acceptance standards. General 1. Welding of Pipeline and Related Facilities. Conversely. AWS has chosen nondestructive examination (NDE) as the preferred terminology for these inspection methods. and API 1104. contain acceptance standards. These criteria have to be incorporated in the acceptance standards. and cost. 1.2 Advantages and Limitations of the Examination Method. ultrasonic examination can detect cracks oriented in any direction provided the sound beam is oriented essentially perpendicular to the major axis of the crack. The advantages and limitations of the examination method help to determine which method(s) is (are) best for detecting discontinuities of a particular size. other expressions are commonly used. Certain discontinuities such as slag or porosity may be acceptable providing their size and distribution are within specified limits. This standard provides a reference guide for the kinds of nondestructive examination methods that are used to verify that welds meet the requirements of a code or specification. and nondestructive testing (NDT). 1. Structural Welding Code—Steel. The nondestructive examination methods described are: (1) Visual (VT) (2) Liquid Penetrant (PT) (3) Magnetic Particle (MT) (4) Radiographic (RT) (5) Ultrasonic (UT) (6) Electromagnetic (Eddy Current) (ET) (7) Leak (LT) The types of discontinuities detected with each method are disclosed and their causes discussed.10M/B1. 1 .4 Cost. Acceptance criteria are not addressed in this standard. anticipated type and size of discontinuity. For example. nondestructive inspection (NDI). however. Two factors that should be considered in selection of a nondestructive examination method are the cost of performing the examination and the equipment. It must be emphasized that all of these expressions are commonly used and may be considered equivalent. 1.10:2009 Guide for the Nondestructive Examination of Welds 1. Costs of the various examination methods depend on the particular situation.3 Acceptance Standards. such as cracks oriented normal to material surfaces.