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AWS B1.10M/B1.

10:2009
An American National Standard

Guide for the
Nondestructive
Examination
of Welds

magnetic particle. and leak testing. 550 N. LeJeune Road. radiographic. liquid penetrant. electromagnetic (eddy current). The standard also addresses which method best detects various types of discontinuities. Miami.10:2009 An American National Standard Approved by the American National Standards Institute July 1.W.10:1999 Prepared by the American Welding Society (AWS) B1 Committee on Methods of Inspection Under the Direction of the AWS Technical Activities Committee Approved by the AWS Board of Directors Abstract This guide acquaints the user with the nondestructive examination methods commonly used to examine weldments. 2009 Guide for the Nondestructive Examination of Welds 4th Edition Supersedes AWS B1. The methods included are visual.AWS B1. FL 33126 . ultrasonic.10M/B1.

............................6 NDE Symbols ...........................................................8 Standard Units of Measurement ....................................................2 1.....................................................................................................................................9 4..............11 4..................................................................................................................................................................14 4...........................8 4................................................6 Electromagnetic (ET)...................................16 Convexity ........................5 Ultrasonic (UT)........29 5.........................3 4............................................................................2 1...3 Magnetic Particle (MT) .................................................................................................................v Foreword...................................................................................................................................................................................2 List of Discontinuities ....................................................................................................................................9 4.......AWS B1............................1 1.........................................................................................................................................................................10 Lamination...............................................................31 6....................................................................................................................................................... Personnel ......................2 4.......4 Inclusions.........................................................................................................................l Visual (VT) ...................11 4...........................................................vii List of Tables.......................14 Cracks ..15 Concavity .............................................................................................................................................................................7 Undercut ..................................8 Underfill................................................................................1 1...................................................................................... Interrelationships Among Welding Processes............5 Procedures..........................................................................13 Lamellar Tear......8 4.............................................4 Cost .................................. Discontinuities...........................24 5...........................................................2 Advantages and Limitations of the Examination Method .........................................................................................................2 4...............2 2................................................................................................................17 Weld Reinforcement .7 Leak (LT) ...........................................................14 4..............................................................................................................1 1............................................................................ Terms and Definitions ..........8 4............................................................................................................................... Discontinuities..........................................................1 1..........................................................................................................................................................15 5..............3 Porosity ..................................................................................................4 4. Normative References ..................................12 Seams or Laps.............................................................................1 Scope.10M/B1..........................................................................................................................7 Safety and Health..15 5.32 ix .............1 1.........................................................................................................................................................................9 Overlap ...................... Nondestructive Examination Methods .............................................................................................................................................................6 Incomplete Joint Penetration ..........................................................................................................................10 4..............................................................................................6 4...........................................................................10 4.................18 5....................................................................................................................................................3 Acceptance Standards.............................................................14 5........................................xi 1.......... General ...................................................5 Incomplete Fusion ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Discussion of Discontinuities .........................................................11 Delamination................................20 5........................................................................................................... and Examination Methods.......................................................................................................................................................................2 Liquid Penetrant (PT) .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................16 5...............................................................................................................................4 Radiographic (RT) ........2 4.2 3............9 4.............................10:2009 Table of Contents Page No...................................................................xi List of Figures......................................................................2 1..............

...........47 Annex E (Informative)—Informative References .........................35 Annex B (Informative)—NDE Symbols and Abbreviations........................................................................................49 List of AWS Documents on Weld Inspection.........................10M/B1......... Annex A (Informative)—Examination Method Selection Guide.....45 Annex D (Informative)—Guidelines for the Preparation of Technical Inquiries.....10:2009 Page No.............................................................................................................................................................37 Annex C (Informative)—Typical Industry Standards .......................................................................................................AWS B1.................................................................................51 x ......................

............................................................................................38 xi ........................................................................................................19 Making a Radiograph..............................................................................................................................................................................10M/B1..............................................................................................................................................................................................24 Similarities Between Reflections of Light and Sound at Boundaries ..................................................................3 Discontinuities Commonly Encountered with Welding Processes ....... Common Types of Discontinuities.................................................28 Backing Bar False Indication ..............8 Fillet Weld Terminology ...............AWS B1...........5 Double-Bevel-Groove Weld in T-Joint..............25 Refraction..........................................................38 Standard Location of the Elements in the Nondestructive Examination Symbol ...............................................10:2009 List of Tables Table 1 2 3 4 Page No........................................................................................................................................................................10 Groove Weld Terminology..................................................... Double-V-Groove Weld in Butt Joint..........................................30 Typical Eddy Current Surface Probes for the Examination of Welds................................................................27 No Discontinuities..............23 Block Diagram...........................2 Page No.................................................................................7 Single Pass Double Fillet Weld in T-Joint................................................................4 Single-Bevel-Groove and Fillet Welds in Corner Joint.................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Discontinuities ..................31 Supplementary Nondestructive Examination Symbols............................................................................................................................................................................................................. Pulse-Echo Flaw Detector ......................................22 Detection of Planar Discontinuities at Various Orientations by Radiography..........17 Magnetic Field Leakage.....................................................13 Common Weld Examination Methods vs...............................19 Indirect Magnetization Using a Yoke............................................................................33 List of Figures Figure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 B.........................27 Discontinuity..................................................................21 Radiographs of Weld Discontinuities and Macrosections ..........................................................................................................................12 Steps in Penetrant Testing .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................26 Example of Longitudinal Testing...................................................................................................................................................................33 Applicable Examination Methods—Five Weld Joint Types ....6 Double Fillet Weld in Lap Joint ...........................................11 Groove Weld Discontinuities ......................................................................................................................................................................................29 Encircling Coil for the Eddy Current Examination of Welded Pipe .............................1 B..............18 Direct Magnetization Using dc Prods .............................................................................................7 Single-Bevel-Groove Weld in Butt Joint................................................................................................................................................................................................................................28 Eddy Current Weld Examination ......................................9 Fillet Weld Discontinuities................................25 Diffraction ...............................................................

anticipated type and size of discontinuity. These and other construction standards are shown in Annex C. and API 1104. usually cannot detect laminations in material or cracks oriented parallel to the plate surface. The statement “the weld shall be radiographically examined” is incomplete unless acceptance standards are specified. 1. 1.1. Principal factors to consider when choosing an examination method are the advantages and limitations of the method. This standard provides a reference guide for the kinds of nondestructive examination methods that are used to verify that welds meet the requirements of a code or specification. Most codes and specifications such as AWS D1.10:2009 Guide for the Nondestructive Examination of Welds 1. and nondestructive testing (NDT). For example. and industry usage. however. It must be emphasized that all of these expressions are commonly used and may be considered equivalent. and cost. acceptance standards.10M/B1.4 Cost. Structural Welding Code—Steel. Acceptance criteria are not addressed in this standard. nondestructive inspection (NDI). ASME Boiler and Pressure Code. Annex A is a guide to process selection. ultrasonic examination can detect cracks oriented in any direction provided the sound beam is oriented essentially perpendicular to the major axis of the crack. Costs of the various examination methods depend on the particular situation. Among these are: nondestructive evaluation (NDE). In other standards. Requirements for nondestructive examination and acceptance criteria should be specified in procurement documents prior to the award of contracts. such as cracks oriented normal to material surfaces. Certain discontinuities such as slag or porosity may be acceptable providing their size and distribution are within specified limits. The advantages and limitations of the examination method help to determine which method(s) is (are) best for detecting discontinuities of a particular size. Two factors that should be considered in selection of a nondestructive examination method are the cost of performing the examination and the equipment.3 Acceptance Standards. 1 . literature.AWS B1. AWS has chosen nondestructive examination (NDE) as the preferred terminology for these inspection methods. shape. contain acceptance standards. radiography can detect discontinuities with major planes aligned parallel with the radiation beam. Radiography. Acceptance standards define characteristics of discontinuities and state whether particular types of discontinuities are allowed. other expressions are commonly used.1 Scope. These criteria have to be incorporated in the acceptance standards.2 Advantages and Limitations of the Examination Method. 1. Welding of Pipeline and Related Facilities. Conversely. The nondestructive examination methods described are: (1) Visual (VT) (2) Liquid Penetrant (PT) (3) Magnetic Particle (MT) (4) Radiographic (RT) (5) Ultrasonic (UT) (6) Electromagnetic (Eddy Current) (ET) (7) Leak (LT) The types of discontinuities detected with each method are disclosed and their causes discussed. and orientation. Nondestructive examination (NDE) is a general term used in this text to identify the common examination methods used for evaluation of welds and related materials without destroying their usefulness. General 1.