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AWS B1.10M/B1.

10:2009
An American National Standard

Guide for the
Nondestructive
Examination
of Welds

The methods included are visual. LeJeune Road. and leak testing.10:1999 Prepared by the American Welding Society (AWS) B1 Committee on Methods of Inspection Under the Direction of the AWS Technical Activities Committee Approved by the AWS Board of Directors Abstract This guide acquaints the user with the nondestructive examination methods commonly used to examine weldments. electromagnetic (eddy current). Miami. 2009 Guide for the Nondestructive Examination of Welds 4th Edition Supersedes AWS B1.10M/B1. FL 33126 . magnetic particle.W. radiographic. ultrasonic.10:2009 An American National Standard Approved by the American National Standards Institute July 1. The standard also addresses which method best detects various types of discontinuities. 550 N.AWS B1. liquid penetrant.

........................................6 Incomplete Joint Penetration ......................................................................10 4................................................... Personnel ..............................2 4.......................................2 4.................................................................................................................................... Interrelationships Among Welding Processes.......................................................................................................................................................................................32 ix ...........................................10 Lamination........................................................................... General .13 Lamellar Tear...........................................................10 4........................................................................................................................................1 Discussion of Discontinuities ..11 4.......................................................................................................................14 5.........9 Overlap .................................................................................2 4....................1 Scope........................................................15 5................................................................................................................ Nondestructive Examination Methods ....5 Incomplete Fusion ...............................................................................3 Porosity ......1 1.......................................................................16 5.......................3 Acceptance Standards.......................................................15 Concavity ....................................................4 Cost ............................................................................................6 4.................................................................................................................................................2 Advantages and Limitations of the Examination Method .....3 4..................1 1.................................. and Examination Methods...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................15 5...............................................................................................................2 1.......................................................................8 Underfill...........................................................8 4......9 4.............................................................................................14 4....................................................................................................................2 3................................................................. Terms and Definitions ................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 Ultrasonic (UT).........................................................24 5.................................................AWS B1....................................2 Liquid Penetrant (PT) ...............12 Seams or Laps.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 Procedures.......................................................................................................................................................................................................11 4.................6 NDE Symbols ..................................1 1......................................................................vii List of Tables.....................................v Foreword.........................................................l Visual (VT) ..31 6.................................................................................4 Inclusions......................................................2 2.........1 1........17 Weld Reinforcement ...........................................................................................................................10M/B1........................................................................................................11 Delamination............................................ Normative References ................................................................................18 5......7 Undercut .....................................................7 Safety and Health.......................2 1..................9 4............................................................................................................................................................9 4......................................................................20 5..............................................................1 1........................................................ Discontinuities...........................................................................6 Electromagnetic (ET).........................8 4.....................................................................................29 5..7 Leak (LT) ....................................14 Cracks ...............................................................................................8 4..................................................................................................................................16 Convexity ....................................xi List of Figures............................................. Discontinuities...............................................................................14 4.........................................................................................10:2009 Table of Contents Page No......................................xi 1..........................................................................................................................................................2 List of Discontinuities ......................2 1.....................................................................................3 Magnetic Particle (MT) ..8 Standard Units of Measurement .....................4 Radiographic (RT) ......................4 4.......................................................................................................................................................

..37 Annex C (Informative)—Typical Industry Standards ........51 x ....45 Annex D (Informative)—Guidelines for the Preparation of Technical Inquiries...........47 Annex E (Informative)—Informative References ..............................AWS B1.................................49 List of AWS Documents on Weld Inspection.......................................................................................10:2009 Page No....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Annex A (Informative)—Examination Method Selection Guide.................................10M/B1.................35 Annex B (Informative)—NDE Symbols and Abbreviations...........................................................

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Double-V-Groove Weld in Butt Joint............................................................25 Refraction...............................................7 Single Pass Double Fillet Weld in T-Joint..................................................................................................................................................................................33 List of Figures Figure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 B....................................................................................................22 Detection of Planar Discontinuities at Various Orientations by Radiography.......10:2009 List of Tables Table 1 2 3 4 Page No..............................................................21 Radiographs of Weld Discontinuities and Macrosections ............27 Discontinuity..............................................................................................................................6 Double Fillet Weld in Lap Joint .............................................................................4 Single-Bevel-Groove and Fillet Welds in Corner Joint....................................................................12 Steps in Penetrant Testing ............................................................................................................................................................................................3 Discontinuities Commonly Encountered with Welding Processes ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................29 Encircling Coil for the Eddy Current Examination of Welded Pipe .....................................................................28 Eddy Current Weld Examination ..........................................................................23 Block Diagram..................................................................................................................13 Common Weld Examination Methods vs........................................ Discontinuities .......................................................................................................................9 Fillet Weld Discontinuities..........................................................................28 Backing Bar False Indication .................................... Common Types of Discontinuities....................................................................................................................................................10 Groove Weld Terminology.............................................................11 Groove Weld Discontinuities ................................................................................33 Applicable Examination Methods—Five Weld Joint Types ...............................................30 Typical Eddy Current Surface Probes for the Examination of Welds........................................................................................24 Similarities Between Reflections of Light and Sound at Boundaries ..........................................................................................25 Diffraction .................................38 xi ..................................26 Example of Longitudinal Testing...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 B.................31 Supplementary Nondestructive Examination Symbols..............................................AWS B1............19 Indirect Magnetization Using a Yoke..38 Standard Location of the Elements in the Nondestructive Examination Symbol .............................................................................................................................................18 Direct Magnetization Using dc Prods ......19 Making a Radiograph....5 Double-Bevel-Groove Weld in T-Joint..................................10M/B1......................................................2 Page No...................................................................17 Magnetic Field Leakage............................................................................................................................................................................................ Pulse-Echo Flaw Detector .....................................................................................8 Fillet Weld Terminology ...............................................................................................27 No Discontinuities.........................................................................................................................7 Single-Bevel-Groove Weld in Butt Joint..........................................................................

The statement “the weld shall be radiographically examined” is incomplete unless acceptance standards are specified. and cost. Costs of the various examination methods depend on the particular situation. nondestructive inspection (NDI). Two factors that should be considered in selection of a nondestructive examination method are the cost of performing the examination and the equipment.1 Scope. Certain discontinuities such as slag or porosity may be acceptable providing their size and distribution are within specified limits. literature. In other standards. ASME Boiler and Pressure Code. Acceptance criteria are not addressed in this standard. usually cannot detect laminations in material or cracks oriented parallel to the plate surface.10:2009 Guide for the Nondestructive Examination of Welds 1. and nondestructive testing (NDT). anticipated type and size of discontinuity. acceptance standards. contain acceptance standards. This standard provides a reference guide for the kinds of nondestructive examination methods that are used to verify that welds meet the requirements of a code or specification.4 Cost.10M/B1. 1. Structural Welding Code—Steel. For example. 1. Nondestructive examination (NDE) is a general term used in this text to identify the common examination methods used for evaluation of welds and related materials without destroying their usefulness. other expressions are commonly used. and API 1104. 1 . General 1. Among these are: nondestructive evaluation (NDE). 1. It must be emphasized that all of these expressions are commonly used and may be considered equivalent. The nondestructive examination methods described are: (1) Visual (VT) (2) Liquid Penetrant (PT) (3) Magnetic Particle (MT) (4) Radiographic (RT) (5) Ultrasonic (UT) (6) Electromagnetic (Eddy Current) (ET) (7) Leak (LT) The types of discontinuities detected with each method are disclosed and their causes discussed.2 Advantages and Limitations of the Examination Method. and orientation. Conversely. These and other construction standards are shown in Annex C. radiography can detect discontinuities with major planes aligned parallel with the radiation beam. Welding of Pipeline and Related Facilities. Principal factors to consider when choosing an examination method are the advantages and limitations of the method. AWS has chosen nondestructive examination (NDE) as the preferred terminology for these inspection methods.1. Radiography. These criteria have to be incorporated in the acceptance standards. Requirements for nondestructive examination and acceptance criteria should be specified in procurement documents prior to the award of contracts. however. ultrasonic examination can detect cracks oriented in any direction provided the sound beam is oriented essentially perpendicular to the major axis of the crack. Annex A is a guide to process selection. The advantages and limitations of the examination method help to determine which method(s) is (are) best for detecting discontinuities of a particular size.AWS B1. Most codes and specifications such as AWS D1. shape. such as cracks oriented normal to material surfaces.3 Acceptance Standards. and industry usage. Acceptance standards define characteristics of discontinuities and state whether particular types of discontinuities are allowed.