SNMP Tutorial: The Fast Track Introduction to SNMP Alarm Monitoring by Marshall DenHartog

Simple Network Management Protocol for real-world telecom network alarm monitoring . . . • Fast, complete introduction to SNMP • Effective telecom alarm monitoring with SNMP • Integrating legacy equipment to SNMP monitoring • Overcoming the limitations of SNMP • Enhanced security with SNMPv3

Version 2.0 Released July 21, 2010


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SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue, Fresno, California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 •

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Part 6: 7 Reasons Why a Basic SNMP Manager Is a Lousy Telemetry Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fresno. . . . 5 Essential SNMP: What is a Trap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Part 5: Understanding Layered Communication. . . 5 Reality Check: 5 Essential Capabilities for SNMP RTUs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Reality Check: 4 Signs You Need Protocol Mediation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Essential SNMP: What is the MIB? Part 4: Understanding Packet Types and Structures. . . . 10 Reality Check: 7 Features That SNMP Managers Can’t Match. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 SNMP Troubleshooting Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Part 3: Understanding the MIB ( Management Information Base) . . .dpstelecom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Instead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Reality Check: How Protocol Mediation Works. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .com How This Guidebook Will Help You Most SNMP reference books aren’t written for you. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 What to Do Next. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Understanding SNMPv3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . It’s an introduction to SNMP strictly from the prospective of telecom network alarm management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with fast specific answers to help you make SNMP monitoring work in your network. . Contents Part 1: An Introduction to SNMP. . . . . . 7 Essential SNMP: What is UDP?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. the telecom professional who needs to monitor network alarms with SNMP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . most SNMP books are written for IT techs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . but it’s useless if you need carrier-grade network visibility of telecom equipment and remote sites. . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 SNMP Product Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 SNMP Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Case Study: KMC Telecom Saves $2 Million Per Year Through In-House Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . This guidebook has been created to give you the information you need to successfully implement SNMP-based alarm monitoring in your network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Quick and Dirty Checklist: 5 Steps to Start Your SNMP Monitoring Project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Reality Check: How to Get Better Visibility of Your SNMP Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Reality Check: What Can SNMP Do for Me? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Reality Check: Why You Need Help With Your SNMP Implementation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . That’s great if you want to manage a computer network. . . . . . . 4 Part 2: How SNMP Handles Alarm Messages. . . . . . . . . . .

call DPS at 1-800-622-3314. That’s what’s good about SNMP — but there’s also some pitfalls that you have to watch out Management System Managed Element Human Network Manager Manager Network Protocol Messages Agent Management Database Management Database Managed Objects Figure 1. an SNMP manager can correctly interpret alarm data from any device that supports SNMP. This long-term solution. Fresno. If you’re not careful. SNMP has achieved widespread acceptance. LAN data transport reduces installation and operation costs and transports alarm data more reliably. however. but it’s also flexible enough to describe almost anything. The MIB is organized in a tree structure with individual variables. NMP The advantages of SNMP are: • It’s LAN-based. SNMP is non-proprietary. • It’s an open standard. SNMP is simple. and supported by multiple vendors. INCE ITs CREATION Reality Check: What Can SNMP Do For Me? S SNMP was derived from its predecessor SGMP (Simple Gateway Management Protocol) and was intended to be replaced by a solution based on the CMIS/CMIP (Common Management Information Service/Protocol) architecture. If it’s supplied with the right MIB file. Moving your alarm monitoring off dedicated copper lines and onto existing LAN/WAN infrastructure creates significant savings. creating greater interoperability between different parts of your network. SNMP uses a manager/agent architecture. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. To learn more. A long numeric tag or object identifier (OID) is used to distinguish each variable uniquely in the MIB and in SNMP messages. can do a lot to make your network alarm monitoring more cost-effective and your network more reliable — if you clearly identify your network monitoring goals and have the right tools to achieve them. never received the widespread acceptance of SNMP. For a full report on 8 pitfalls to avoid. SNMP is based on the manager/agent model consisting of a manager. fully documented. The agent provides the interface between the manager and the physical device(s) being managed (see illustration). being represented as leaves on the branches. Vendors and users of SNMP equipment can add to the Management Information Base (MIB) to include nearly any kind of device. a database of management information. such as point status or description. • It can be easily extended. call 1-800-622-3314 and ask for your free Network Monitoring Needs Analysis. The manager and agent use a Management Information Base (MIB) and a relatively small set of commands to exchange information. • It provides a common management platform for many different devices. The manager provides the interface between the human network manager and the management system.dpstelecom. Alarm messages (Traps) are sent by the agent to the manager. Part 1: An Introduction to SNMP S in 1988 as a short-term solution to manage elements in the growing Internet and other attached networks. an agent. You can avoid the risks (and guarantee the benefits) of your SNMP implementation by working with an experienced vendor who can help you accurately determine your network monitoring needs. managed objects and the network protocol. it’s easy to wind up with a system that costs too much and does too little. 4 .SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue.

Dial-Up. upon receiving a Get or GetNext message. all DPS Telecom SNMP equipment transmits a unique Trap ID for both alarm and clear for each alarm point. Many devices can output SNMP Traps — when you’re evaluating an RTU. the manager will continue to function. It supports your transport: You may not have LAN available at every site. Unlike a classic telemetry master. the RTU will send an alarm as an SNMP Trap.dpstelecom.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. OW DO YOU Here are 5 essential features that your SNMP RTU must have: 1. To learn more about DPS RTUs. A Set message allows the manager to request a change be made to the value of a specific variable in the case of an alarm remote that will operate a relay. To make sure the meaning of a Trap is understood. and Set) are only issued by the SNMP manager. Discrete alarm inputs (also called digital inputs or contact closures): These are typically used to monitor equipment failures. Analog alarms monitor temperature. expandable alarm capacity. Ping alarms: An RTU that supports ping alarms will ping devices on your network at regular intervals. request a live Web demo at www. will issue a GetResponse message to the manager with either the information requested or an error indication as to why the request cannot be processed. An RTU with control relay outputs will let you operate remote site equipment directly from your NOC. instead of waiting for the SNMP manager to ask. providing immediate notification that the device has failed or gone offline. most of the messages (Get. humidity and pressure. The small number of commands used is only one of the reasons SNMP is simple. Analog alarm inputs: While discrete alarms monitor on/off conditions. 5. Because the Trap message is the only message capable of being initiated by an agent. 5 . Essential SNMP: What is a Trap? An SNMP Trap is a change-of-state (COS) message — it could mean an alarm. GetNext. 3. intrusion alarms. if an agent fails. analog alarms measure continuously variable levels of voltage or current. The Trap message allows the agent to spontaneously inform the manager of an “important” event. basic SNMP managers don’t keep a standing alarm list. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. Control relays: Don’t waste time and money sending a technician to a remote site miles away simply to turn a switch. CDMA/GSM Wireless. The agent. or vice versa. You often have to parse variable bindings to decode a Trap. The agent will then respond with a GetResponse message indicating the change has been made or an error indication as to why the change cannot be made.LAN. giving you immediate Telnet access via LAN from your NOC at any time. The Get and GetNext messages allow the manager to request information for a specific variable. Your devices connect to the RTU’s serial ports. or serial. it is the message used by DPS Telecom remote telemetry units (RTUs) to report alarms. a clear or simply a status message. If a device fails to respond. GetNext. beacons. You can minimize costs by getting an RTU that supports your available transport . This simplicity has led directly to its widespread use. and flood and fire detectors. This notifies the SNMP manager as soon as an alarm condition occurs. DPS Telecom offers SNMP RTUs that meet all these requirements — and offer stand-alone local visibility through any web browser. Fiber. all of which can critically affect equipment performance. Fresno. 2.dpstelecom. LAN access via dial-up connection and more. look instead at how many alarm monitoring functions it can perform. Set and Trap) to communicate between the manager and the agent. Reality Check: What Features Do I Need in an SNMP RTU? H find the right SNMP RTU? Look for more features than just SNMP support. 6. specifically in the Internet Network Management Framework. The other simplifying factor is its reliance on an unsupervised or connectionless communication link. Part 2: How SNMP Handles Alarm Messages SNMP UsEs FIVE basic messages (Get. Within this framework. it is considered robust because of the independence of the managers from the agents. so it’s difficult to tell what’s happening in your network by looking at a list of Traps. GetResponse. Terminal server function: Your RTU can also serve as a terminal server to remote-site serial devices. that is. As you can see.

ACH sNMP root Reality Check: How to Get Better Visibility of Your SNMP Alarms Receiving Traps is Only the Beginning of Effective SNMP Monitoring T between basic alarm monitoring and intelligent alarm management. such as the state of an alarm point. route alarm information directly to the people who need it. But simple status reports don’t provide effective full visibility of your network.g. 1. but will not respond to alarm polls.1.1. or the element uptime. Learning to read MIBs is difficult. if your device’s MIB lists OIDs for Traps but not for GetResponse messages. These object identifiers naturally form a tree as shown in the below illustration. Using a basic alarm monitoring system makes it more likely that faults will not be corrected. Figure 2.1. Fresno. but it’s worth the trouble.1). DPS remote units send a comprehensive set of bindings with each Trap to maintain traditional telemetry event visibility. The MIB associates each OID with a readable label (e. a response packet is assembled and sent with the current value of the object / characteristic included. The element receives the request and looks up each OID in its code book (MIB).1 directory (1) mgmt (2) experimental (3) private (4) enterprises (1) dpsInc (2682) 1. multifunction alarm master with advanced features like programmable custom alarms. hERE’s A BIG DIFFERENCE ccitt (0) iso (1) joint-iso-ccitt (3) org (3) dod (6) internet (1) 1. If the OID is not found. Your SNMP manager can’t monitor your devices unless it has compiled their MIB files. When an element sends a Trap packet.2682. When an SNMP manager wants to know the value of an object/characteristic. And some problems require immediate action far faster than any human being can respond. T/Mon is a multiprotocol. Any basic system will give you some kind of notification of an alarm. and that’s a crucial edge to have in today’s competitive telecom industry. A simple system cannot get alarm information to the people who can correct problems quick enough to make a difference.g.6.3. Advanced features like these can make the difference between a minor incident and major downtime. . a special error response is sent that identifies the unmanaged object. it will assemble a GET packet that includes the OID for each object/characteristic of interest. For example.6. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www.dpstelecom. dpsRTUAState) and various other parameters related to the object. If the OID is found (the object is managed by the element). Each object/characteristic has a unique object identifier (OID) consisting of numbers separated by decimal points (e.4. Automated Correction Your staff can’t hover around a screen watching for alarms with their full attention 24/7.4. automatic alarm If you want these features. it will locate the problem. alarm filtering and silencing and more. e-mail and pager alarm notification.3. and.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue.2682. if possible.1. The MIB is also a guide to the capabilities of your SNMP devices. you know it will report alarms. the system name. it can include OID and value information (bindings) to clarify the event. call 1-800-622-3314 today to register for a live Web demonstration or register on the Web at www.. The MIB then serves as a data dictionary or codebook that is used to assemble and interpret SNMP messages. To learn more about T/Mon. potentially resulting in serious damage to your network and your revenue. The branch of the MIB object identifier tree that represents managed elements used by DPS Telecom equipment. correct the problem automatically. SNMP managers will also generally display the readable labels to facilitate user understanding and 6 Essential SNMP: What is the MIB? The MIB lists the unique object identifier (OID) of each managed element in an SNMP Part 3: Understanding the MIB (Management Information Base) E element manages specific objects with each object having specific characteristics.1 dpsAlarmControl (1) TMonXM (1) dpsRTU (2) Intelligent Notification An intelligent alarm management system won’t just tell personnel there’s a problem.6. Well-designed SNMP managers can use the bindings to correlate and manage the events. provide instructions for corrective action.dpstelecom.3. you need the T/ Mon Remote Alarm Monitoring System..

Figure 3 (above) shows the packet formats. Figure 3. so you can replace your legacy system step by step. You inherited someone else’s incompatible system: If your company has merged with another. L the communication between managers and agents. Protocol mediation saves you money by keeping your non-SNMP equipment in place. If you have a large network. You can’t afford to replace this network. UDP does not guarantee message delivery. at only one license fee.the master is starting to fail. Protocol mediation will merge your two networks at minimal expense. decision-making.. 7 . Part 4: Understanding Packet Types and Structure Reality Check: 4 Signs You Need Protocol Mediation 1. like TBOS. data and checksum IP datagram UDP datagram common SNMP header PDU type (0-3) SNMP message get / set header request error status error ID (0-5) index variables to get / set IP header UDP header version community (0) name value name value . But you can’t afford a forklift swapout of your whole system. are packet oriented with packets of bytes exchanged to communicate. which is enclosed in the IP data packet. Protocol mediation lets you integrate your old remotes with an SNMP manager. do a site survey and find out how much non-SNMP equipment you have in your network.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. The agent sends a Trap when a specific event occurs. a type and a value (if a Set or GetResponse). You have a lot of non-SNMP equipment: Before planning your SNMP implementation. 2. 4. like TABS. The agent checks each identifier against its MIB to determine whether the object is managed and changeable (if processing a Set). The packets contain header. with a single byte exchanged to communicate. 3. A UDP host places messages on the network without first establishing a connection with the recipient.. The manager uses its MIB to display the readable name of Essential SNMP: What is UDP? UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is the IP transport layer protocol that supports SNMP messages. Expanded serial telemetry protocols. You want to gradually migrate from your old system: It’s time to replace your older system . you might find yourself responsible for a whole new network of incompatible equipment. Changing out a large number of non-SNMP devices can add hundreds of thousands of dollars to your project costs. Each variable binding contains an identifier. are byte-oriented. that can get real expensive real fast. but it’s a lightweight protocol that can transport a large number of status messages without using too many network resources. but you need to integrate it into your existing operations. UDP is a connectionless protocol. The SNMP data packet is enclosed in the UDP data packet. The manager sends a Set to change a variable or variables and the agent’s response confirms the change if allowed. Basic serial telemetry protocols. Fresno.dpstelecom. You don’t want to pay license fees: You may have to pay a separate license fee for every device you monitor with your SNMP manager. Unlike TCP. and it’s hard to get new remotes. A protocol mediator can take input from your whole network and consolidate it to one SNMP input. SNMP is also packet oriented with the following SNMP v1 packets (Protocol Data Units or PDUs) used to communicate: ET’s EXAMINE Get GetNext Set GetResponse Trap The manager sends a Get or GetNext to read a variable or variables and the agent’s response contains the requested information if managed. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www.

you most likely are collecting SNMP Traps from diverse equipment at various or 1-800-693-0351. the T/ Mon Remote Alarm Monitoring System serves as a general protocol mediation solution. and more. NetGuardian 832A plus it can mediate TBOS and TABS alarms to SNMP. Fresno. ASCII. including SNMP Traps. The fourth layer is the Network Interface layer where the assembled packet is actually interfaced to some kind of transport media (for example. For help with protocol mediation devices. Management Application Get-Next GetResponse Event Get Set Application Manages Objects Get SNMP Manager UDP IP Link SNMP Messages SNMP Agent UDP IP Link Mediating SNMP to Other Protocols Alternatively.dpstelecom. routers. Communications Network Figure 4. NetMediator For central-office mediation. contact DPS Telecom’s Sales Engineers at sales@dpstele. twisted pair copper. T/Mon collects alarms from many different types of equipment and protocols. UDP resides in the Transport layer and IP resides in the Internet layer (somewhat obvious). DNP3. communication and ultimately assists in designing and implementing a network. or v3) to multiple SNMP managers. but you need to monitor native SNMP devices like switches. mediates all alarm data to a common format. the variable and sometimes interpret its value. In that case. RG58 co-axial or fiber). These are commonly referred to as layers and are based on a four-layer model developed by the Department of Defense (you may recall the DoD origins of the Internet). which in turn is wrapped in the Internet Protocol (IP). The NetGuardian is an SNMP-based remote telemetry unit that accepts inputs from discrete. the correct solution is to mediate Traps from the SNMP devices into the protocols used by your existing master. It is wrapped in the User Datagram Protocol (UDP). including Modbus. The last section focused on the structure of SNMP messages. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. you may have a non-SNMP master that is deeply embedded in your network. however an SNMP message is not sent by itself. While this multi-layer model may seem a bit confusing. it effectively isolates the tasks of SNMP Management System SNMP Managed System Managed Resources SNMP Managed Objects GetResponse Get-Next Event Mediating other protocols to SNMP For remote-site mediation. Part 5: Understanding Layered Communication A Critical Tool for Troubleshooting Communication Problems Reality Check: How Protocol Mediation Works W to examine the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) focusing specifically on the layered communication model used to exchange information.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. ROtOCOL MEDIAtION SNMP resides in what is called the Application layer. enabling you to monitor all your equipment from your SNMP manager. E CONTINUE P converts legacy alarms to SNMP Traps. either for your central office or equipment in the field. This solution is more practical and less expensive than replacing your existing master. Each layer does a specific communication task. DPS Telecom offers the NetGuardian 832A and the NetMediator. Traversing the Layers To illustrate the function of this layered model. and also avoids the trouble and costs of installing and maintaining a specialized SNMP manager to monitor only SNMP equipment. An SNMP message passes through the protocol layers at both the manager and agent. If you are mediating alarms from SNMP to other protocols. The NetMediator includes all the local site monitoring capabilities of the NetGuardian. You need a central office mediation solution that will collect the incoming Traps in one place and mediate them all to different protocols before forwarding them to the higher level master. and can forward alarm data to other devices in a wide variety of protocols. then forwards the data as SNMP Traps (v1. and DACs. analog and ping alarms. let’s look at a single SNMP GET request from the agent’s 8 Set .

The Network Interface layer verifies media access and availability and places the packet on the media for transport. LAN/WAN link and activity status indicators provide some visibility to the Network Interface layer. into.dpstelecom. the Network Interface layer simply passes it to the IP layer. How to Learn SNMP the Easy Way: Attend DPS Telecom Factory Training “I had heard of SNMP. At a DPS Factory Training Event. EARN Each 4-day training course covers SNMP alarm monitoring ASCII alarm parsing and processing. If an application is listening at the target port. It then passes the message to the UDP layer. Paul Bunyan Telephone L SNMP IN-DEPTH and hands-on. When there is a problem. it is pulled off the media by the Network Interface layer.dpstelecom. The packet thus formed is then passed to the IP layer. After confirming that the packet is intact and valid. Fresno. 9 . in a totally practical class that will teach you how to get the most from your network monitoring. I’m not at all scared about SNMP now. If the listening application is the SNMP agent.” —Derek Willis. The UDP layer adds a data block that identifies the manager port to which the response packet should be sent and the port on which it expects the SNMP agent to be listening for messages. and automatic e-mail and pager notifications. Each step can be verified independently until all steps are working correctly for end-to-end communication. Here a data block containing the IP and Media Access addresses of the manager and the agent is added before the entire assembled packet gets passed to the Network Interface layer. The IP layer verifies the Media Access and IP address and passes it on to the UDP layer where the target port is checked for connected applications. configuring and using derived alarms and controls. After working its way across bridges and through routers (the modern equivalent of over the rivers and through the woods) based on the IP information. SNMP’s location in the TCP/IP protocol stack.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. It’s the easiest and most complete way to learn SNMP alarm monitoring from the technicians who have designed hundreds of successful SNMP monitoring implementations For Factory Training Events dates and registration information. and up the Application Layer Transport Layer Internet Layer Network Access Physical Layer SNMP SMTP UDP IP PPP Telnet HTTP TCP FTP ICMP SLIP USART ARP Ethernet Modem Figure 5. Here it passes through the same four layers in exactly the opposite order as it did at the manager. but I never knew what SNMP was until I learned it at DPS Factory Training. The agent response then follows the identical path in reverse to reach the manager. out one end. the GET request is processed as we have discussed in previous articles. the packet is passed to the Application layer. call 1-800-693-3314 today or visit us on the Web at http://www. The SNMP manager wants to know what the Agent’s System Name is and prepares a GET message for the appropriate OID. you’ll learn how to turn SNMP theory into a practical plan for improving your network visibility. SNMP processing indicators can be used to verify the passage of the packet through the UDP layer and the functioning of the Application layer. ICMP echo requests and responses (PINGs) provide some information regarding the proper functioning of the IP layer. you can simply trace it down. the packet finally arrives at the agent. First. SNMP is an applications-layer component of the TCP/IP suite of protocols perspective. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. Troubleshooting IP Communication Problems Understanding this layered model makes it easier to troubleshoot communication

either by laptop or smartphone. Using off-the-shelf SNMP systems for mission-critical telemetry is disappointing at best and disastrous at worst. including its severity. These capabilities can be added to an SNMP manager. Before you commit to an SNMP monitoring solution. System operators. and a user-defined description. Derived alarms and controls that combine and correlate data from multiple alarm inputs and automatically control remote site equipment to correct complex threats.dpstelecom. Pager and e-mail notifications.dpstelecom. it remains in the Standing Alarms screen until it is cleared. but it may require substantial custom software development. 2. SNMP certainly has its place in an effective telemetry monitoring solution. 7. Easy to Use Web Interface that provides quick access to alarms for technicians on the go. you need to make sure it supports essential telemetry functions. Send alarm notifications directly to maintenance personnel. If you’re used to the standards of classic telecom telemetry. Basic SNMP managers don’t provide complete. 8. including new alarms and alarms that have cleared. severity or descriptions of alarm events. Immediate notification of changes of state (COSs). precise alarm descriptions A basic SNMP manager doesn’t record . 2. A continuously updated list of all current standing alarms. Even if the system operator acknowledges the alarm. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. time. 4. many network managers have come to believe that SNMP should be used for all telemetry monitoring applications. NMP Is A sTANDARD Reality Check: 7 Features That SNMP Managers Can’t Match 1. 3.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. you must create and maintain a master alarm list representing all the monitored points in your network — and then also create and maintain a database associating all the Traps that may be sent to the SNMP manager with the alarms on that list. an off-the-shelf SNMP manager will not provide the detailed alarm data you Part 6: 7 Reasons Why a Basic SNMP Manager Is a Lousy Telemetry Master S protocol that has wide acceptance in the industry and is flexible enough to describe almost anything. Text message windows displaying specific instructions for the appropriate action for an alarm. Fresno. Because of these advantages. You don’t have to hunt to find out what’s changed in your network — T/Mon lists it for you. Nuisance alarm filtering. Sign up for a Web demo of T/Mon at www. Creating this addition to the Trap association database often requires analyzing multiple variable bindings within the Trap packet. Unimportant alarms that generate meaningless status notices or oscillate between alarm and clear conditions subconsciously train your staff to ignore the alarm monitoring system. location. allowing your staff to focus its attention on serious threats. Detailed alarm notifications in plain English that your staff will immediately understand and take action on. 10 The T/Mon Remote Alarm Monitoring System provides total visibility of your network status and automatically notifies the right people to keep your network running. Basic SNMP managers can’t identify cleared alarms Even more work is required to identify whether a Trap represents an alarm or a clear condition. will know precisely what to do and who to call in case of an alarm. The typical off-the-shelf SNMP manager is not designed for displaying and processing telemetry data. 6. To adapt an off-the-shelf SNMP manager to monitor these factors. T/Mon filters out nuisance alarms. date/ time stamp. even if they’re away from the NOC. Every notification includes full information about the alarm. Before you buy … check for these 7 essential telemetry features: 1. 5. especially not for the kind of real-world monitoring tasks network managers most need performed. but this doesn’t mean that any off-the-shelf SNMP manager can provide adequate visibility and control of your network. even without extra training.

In the example of the negligent system operator. but neither one needs to know about all the alarms in the network. of these functions can be added to standard SNMP managers. Who would know the alarm is still standing? 4. for whatever reason. 7. A basic SNMP manager doesn’t maintain a list of standing alarms. it is considered cleared. the typical SNMP manager maintains an event log of newly reported Traps and a history log of acknowledged Traps. 3. Fresno. posting the same alarm to multiple logical categories. but it’s only one item in your telemetry monitoring toolkit. it would be impossible to determine who had made the mistake or to assign responsibility for the resulting problems.dpstelecom. 5. If Jones is in charge of all equipment for the Western region. SNMP-capable network alarm management system? And in fact. And if one manager corrects the alarm condition and acknowledges the alarm. but not all. fails to correct the alarm condition. nuisance alarm silencing. but implementing telemetry monitoring in a basic SNMP manager usually involves a substantial amount of custom software module development. and Smith is in charge of power plants. Instead. and all users may acknowledge all alarms. trouble. send an email to: solutions@dpstelecom. and then. Even when pre-built software modules are available. Basic SNMP managers don’t provide the alarm notification you need No SNMP manager supports the advanced features necessary for best quality telemetry 11 . Basic SNMP managers don’t maintain a history of standing alarms Relying on a basic SNMP manager for alarm management can potentially result in completely losing visibility of threats to your network. Basic SNMP managers don’t sort or filter alarms Basic SNMP managers have no built-in functions for organizing alarms by logical category. such as notifications escalation. automatic control relay operation. legacy protocol mediation. All Traps are posted to one alarm list. Basic SNMP managers are insufficiently secure for multiple users Out of the box. both need to know about a generator failure in Tucson. As soon as a Trap is acknowledged. it is much easier to adapt a traditional telemetry master to process SNMP Traps than to adapt an SNMP manager to perform telemetry functions. Imagine what might happen to your network if a system operator acknowledges an alarm. Unfortunately. For details about an alarm management system that overcomes these 7 barriers . they usually require custom tweaking to perform exactly as you want them to. and expense to recreate capabilities that are already present in a high-quality. Basic SNMP managers don’t identify system operators Basic SNMP managers do not record the identity of the system operator who acknowledges an alarm. the typical SNMP manager is not designed for multi-user security.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. Why take the time. and it is difficult to justify significant development costs after purchasing an already expensive SNMP manager. and it can be used more effectively when it is part of a total alarm management solution. SNMP is an effective tool. all users may view all alarms. and it is clear that SNMP will be increasingly used in the future. The need for extensive customization eliminates the advantage of using a simple open standard. standard SNMP managers will not support these functions. the other manager needs to know it was acknowledged and by whom. and automatic notifications by pager and e-mail. There is no question that SNMP is right for many applications. It is true that many. or sorting which alarms the user wants to see.

where they monitor the integrity of KMC’s fiber optic network as well as environmental. The growth of the company and its network had by 2001 created a situation where it was both possible and necessary to use economies of scale to cut operational costs. asked itself in 2001.000 miles across 35 states. KMC has NetGuardians in 48 different locations across the United States. The total project resulted in about $2 million a year in savings. The NetGuardian equipment was a part of that. In reliable hands: KMC Telecom’s team now has total control at their finger tips. Fresno. Monitor data from the NetGuardians is sent as SNMP Traps to the Huntsville NOC. Huntsville. We’re looking at cost savings and how to integrate costs. Moses says the decision to use the NetGuardian came from knowledge of the quality of older DPS Telecom products and research into current alarm monitoring offerings “ DPS Telecom gives us a reliable way of accessing a variety of equipment. But as the network grew. “We’ve cut the operational expenses significantly. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. and security alarms in KMC’s numerous remote sites. HY PAY KMC’s move from outsourced to in-house monitoring was one more milestone in the telecom’s growth from start-up to major-league CLEC. We now have a common interface for our existing system. KMC created a highly successful network operations center in Huntsville. where it is displayed using HP OpenView internet usage manager software. and Internet services. Ala.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. which stretches over 30. Since the Huntsville NOC began operation. Until last year KMC relied on an outsource provider to monitor its fiber optic network.” Moses says that operating its own NOC has saved KMC millions. KMC had outsourced network monitoring since the foundation of its fiber optic network in the mid-1990s.000 alarm points.” The Huntsville NOC relies on the alarm collection capacity of DPS Telecom’s NetGuardian. KMC has deployed 60 NetGuardians and 120 NetGuardian Case Study: KMC Telecom saves $2 million per year through in-house monitoring W someone to do something you can do yourself? That was the question KMC Telecom. data. power. it became more and more practical for us to take monitoring in house.dpstelecom. ” 12 . it’s not economical to do these things for yourself. KMC has saved substantially on operations costs while creating a real-time monitoring capability that proved itself during November’s tornado strike. a fast-growing integrated provider of voice. They no longer have to pay for outsourced monitoring and are finding their response times to netdirector of operations for KMC in work outages have improved now that they can view alarm events in real-time. “ It’s really added to our peace of mind to be able to see what’s going on real-time ” “We’d outsourced our monitoring since we deployed our facilities network.” says Harold Moses. regardless of the brand or provider. the Huntsville NOC monitors approximately 3. altogether. This should give you some idea of the scope of KMC’s operations. “For most start-ups. KMC decided it could save money by monitoring their network themselves.

SNMPv3 messages may be protected in 2 ways. Fresno. Privacy The other of the two SNMPv3 security types. and Tennessee. including encryption to protect the contents of any intercepted traps. Ohio. but we still need to send a technician to the site. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. SNMPv3 encrypts messages using CBC-DES encryption. work. Privacy encrypts the payload of the SNMP message to ensure that it cannot be read by unauthorized users. The deciding factor was that the NetGuardian gave KMC a cost-effective means of using its existing equipment. but you must be prepared for the additional processing time required to calculate EngineID’s during authentication and encrypting/decrypting Privacy-enabled messages. According to Dale Stinson. The real-time monitoring capability was of great service on the morning of Nov. Pennsylvania. Authentication Authentication is one of two types of security available in SNMPv3. they are given a special key that is based on the EngineID of the entity.” Traps and its tight integration with HP OpenView. The key is shared with the inteneded recipient and used to receive the message.” Monitoring the network in-house has also improved KMC’s monitoring visibility in ways that integrated with the way we are impossible to accomplish with a third-party provider. SNMPv3 can be the secure network management solution you need. SNMPv4? In an effort to reduce the need for future versions of SNMP. manager of the Huntsville NOC.” Stinson says. “Nine out of 10 of these sites are unmanned. “ “It’s really added to our peace of mind to be able to see what’s going on real-time.” Stinson says. in how it handles SNMP Stinson adds. The EngineID is used to generate the key for authenticated messages. in how it handles SNMP Traps and its tight integration The NetGuardian is tightly with HP OpenView. regardless of the brand or provider. Ultimately. The Cost of Security Nothing is free. the SNMPv3 protocol was designed with greater flexibility than previous versions. the NetGuardian was the solution that made the most sense for cost and capability. We did quite a lot of research of what was available. Outsourced monitoring can’t see problems in real time.dpstelecom. We now have a common interface for our existing system. “We have automatic backup generators. Privacy is especially useful in applications where SNMP messages must be routed over the Internet. you’re probably best running an earlier version that is simpler to maintain. a part of the Universal Security Model (USM). you must decide if the enhanced security of SNMPv3 is worth the cost in your application. 13 . It would have taken us several minutes longer to respond if we were still using outsourced from a number of vendors. Conflicts can occur if two SNMP entities have duplicate EngineID’s. ” Understanding SNMPv3 SNMPV3 FEATURES several enhancements over earlier versions. The “EngineID” Unique Identifier The EngineID in SNMPv3 uniquely identifies each SNMP entity. We thought that the NetGuardian had a lot of flexibility. Being able to do realtime in-house monitoring probably shaved 30 minutes off our response time. Any intercepted traps will be filled with garbled characters and will be unreadable.” says Stinson. but security is the most significant in the majority of SNMP applications.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. “NetGuardian was the only solution that met both our technical and our budget needs. This is expected to make the lifespan of SNMPv3 longer than its predecessors.” says Moses. If you don’t need the security. As messages are created. It is used to ensure that traps are read by only the intended recipient. Mississippi. 11. knocking out the commercial power supply to several KMC Telecom sites. “DPS Telecom gave us a reliable way of accessing a variety of equipment. Tornados had ripped through Alabama. in terms of the various software options and terminal capacity. “The NetGuardian is tightly integrated with the way we work.

com 5 Steps You Can Take Today to Start Your SNMP Monitoring Project Quick and Dirty SNMP Checklist 0 Assess Your Existing Network Start with a thorough assessment of your exiting network equipment and data transport. channel bank. 0 Plan Your SNMP Implementation Budget 14 Watch out for the capital expenditure and installation manpower costs of a forklift swapout. This will avoid the costs of a systemwide replacement. Check for SNMP-ready transport: LAN. and version number. 0 Survey Your Existing Data Transport 0 The biggest challenge in your SNMP implementation is ensuring you have enough bandwidth for SNMP traffic. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. order wire or PPP over a dial-up or direct link 0 Make sure transport has adequate bandwidth for UDP traffic 0 Check if low-bandwidth transport can be rerouted to high-bandwidth 0 Survey Your Existing Equipment 0 0 0 0 Determine how much of your currently existing network elements support SNMP. The MIB file enables the SNMP manager to interpret Trap messages from devices. Fresno.dpstelecom. MIB files are equipment specific. so it’s important to make sure that you have the correct MIB for your equipment type. Examine your present telemetry map. overhead channel. checking for what you already have that’s compatible with SNMP. Identify existing transport and identify what adjustments need to be made. model. so you can plan systematically what upgrades will be necessary for SNMP-based monitoring Equipment that natively supports SNMP Equipment that can be firmware upgraded to support SNMP Equipment that can be swapped out for a later SNMP model Equipment that cannot be economically replaced with a direct SNMP equivalent (Don’t replace this equipment — look for a protocol mediation solution instead) 0 Collect MIB Files for Your Equipment Make sure that you have the correct Management Information Base (MIB) files for all of your equipment. The more you can keep. the more you’ll save on capital expenditures.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. Use protocol mediation solutions to make your existing network SNMP ready. keeping your budget within reasonable limits .

If no packet sniffer is available. make sure all devices are configured for the same port) 0 Are all alarm points on the RTU configured to send Traps? 0 Does the Trap community string on the RTU match the Trap community string on the SNMP manager? 0 Use packet sniffer at RTU end to make sure Trap PDUs are sent.dpstelecom. use the Analyze mode of your included configuration software. If your RTU is a DPS Telecom unit.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. Fresno. there is an error in the network settings. If the ping is unsuccessful. Reconfigure firewall to allow UDP traffic at Port 162 (or port used by your SNMP manager) 0 Use packet sniffer at SNMP manager end to make sure Trap PDUs are arriving at 0 If Trap packets are arriving. 0 If RTU configuration is correct. check network communication between the SNMP manager and the RTU 0 Ping the RTU from the SNMP manager the manager. Consult your network administrator. check the firewall configuration. check SNMP manager configuration 0 Double-check Trap community string settings 0 Make sure that the right MIB file for the RTU has been compiled on the SNMP manager 0 If no Trap packets are arriving at the SNMP Not getting Traps from your SNMP RTU? Here’s some quick troubleshooting steps to isolate the problem: SNMP Troubleshooting Guide 0 Check RTU configuration 0 Is the Trap address set to the correct IP address for the SNMP manager? 0 Is the RTU configured to send Traps to Port 162? (Port 162 is the standard port for receiving SNMP Traps — if your SNMP manager uses a different port. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. 15 . proceed to the next step.

used to walk down a range of OIDs. GetNext or Set request from the SNMP manager. To compile properly. every network device is defined in the MIB as a set of managed objects. routers and hubs can also act as SNMP agents. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. system uptime. which in turn runs over IP. Secret authentication keys are generated based upon the EngineID of the SNMP entity. Inform Notification: An SNMP message (supported in some v2c and v3 implementations) that is similar to a trapbut requires a confirmation response from the manager. Management Information Base (MIB): The MIB is a data structure that describes SNMP network elements as a list of data objects. SNMP runs over UDP. Community string: An SNMP security password. This is more robust than a standard trap and offers better reliability. control relay status. EngineID: In SNMPv3. not all of which are important for telemetry.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. etc. In network alarm management. The manager can issue Get. a MIB file must be formatted in a text file according to the Structure of Management Information (SMI) standard. GetNext: An SNMP message issued by a manager. Fresno. The GetNext request retrieves the value of the managed object one number after the OID listed in the request. but other network devices like switches. like the SNMP Agent software module in T/MonXM. An SNMP agent can also be a subsection of a larger SNMP Glossary Agent: A hardware device or software program that reports to an SNMP manager. COS (Change of State) alarm: A telemetry alarm that is clearly labeled as reporting a change in status from clear to alarm or from alarm to clear. Write Community: Allows an SNMP manager to issue Set messages Trap Community: Allows an SNMP agent to issue Trap messages. Manager: A top-level SNMP master system (hardware or software) serving as the human interface to the SNMP network. Managed Objects: Values of network devices that can be read or overwritten by the SNMP manager. Event: In SNMP terms. An entity may send an empty message to another entity to request its EngineID prior to initiating communication. an SNMP agent is typically an RTU. There are three kinds of community strings: Read Community: Allows an SNMP manager to issue Get and GetNext messages. a unique identifier for each SNMP entity. In SNMP terms. GetResponse: SNMP message issued by an agent in response to a Get. like alarm status. but it also consumes more network resources. Compiling: The process of importing a MIB file into an SNMP manager. SNMP equipment can generate traps for many different kinds of events.dpstelecom. which mediates T/Mon alarms to SNMP traps. any change of status in a managed object in the network. The ability to filter unimportant events is essential for high-quality SNMP alarm management Get: An SNMP message issued by a manager that requests the status of a managed object. your SNMP manager must compile the MIB file for each equipment type in your network. To monitor SNMP devices. Internet Protocol (IP): the network layer datagram protocol of the TCP/IP protocol suite. Authentication: An SNMPv3 security measure that ensures that only the intended recipient receives the SNMP message. GetNext and Set requests to agents and receives GetResponse and Trap 16 .

like the NetMediator T2S (TBOS to SNMP) is also a proxy agent. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. but a standing alarm list displays every alarm that has not been reported as cleared by the monitoring equipment. Devices that mediate other alarms in other protocols to SNMP.dpstelecom. Packet Internet Gopher (PING): An ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) echo request to determine whether a device on an IP network is online. In network alarm monitoring. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP): the standard TCP/IP protocol for managing IP network devices. MD5: One process for generating authentication/privacy keys in SNMPv3 applications. For example. private (4).1. dod (6). Port 161 is used for messages sent by the manager.3. There are 5 types of PDU in SNMP v1: Get. Protocol Data Unit (PDU): An SNMP message. so the contents of intercepted messages will not be readable. the main MIB will not compile properly. internet (1).6. GetResponse and Trap. Each decimal point represents a leaf node in the tree structure of the MIB. Standing alarm list: A list of all uncleared alarms. UDP uses fewer network resources than TCP. User Datagram Protocol (UDP): the transport layer protocol used to send SNMP messages. enterprises (1). Proxy agent: An SNMP agent that translates non-SNMP messages and inputs to SNMP. Unlike TCP. the transport protocol used for SNMP does not establish a connection or guarantee delivery. NMS: Network Management Software or Network Management System. Referenced (RFC) MIBs: MIBs that are required by the main MIB during compiling. dpsInc (2682). Privacy encrypts the message contents using a key. Privacy: An SNMPv3 security measure. Structure of Management Information (SMI): the standard that defines the MIB structure. guaranteeing delivery. all OIDs for DPS Telecom equipment begin with the numbers 1. like the NetGuardian 832A.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. Each variable binding lists a managed object and its current value. Standard SNMP managers automatically delete all acknowledged traps. org (3). Set: An SNMP message issued by a manager instructing an agent to change a Managed object to a new value SHA: One process for generating authentication/privacy keys in SNMPv3 applications. Object Identifier (OID): A number that uniquely identifies a managed object in an SNMP network. 17 . However. a proxy agent is usually an RTU that converts contact closure inputs to SNMP traps. UDP. Ports 161 and 162: The virtual ports most commonly used to transmit SNMP messages. TCP is considered a “reliable” protocol because it establishes a connection between the host and the recipient. Fresno. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): the more common transport layer protocol in the TCP/IP suite.4. Trap: An SNMP message issued by an SNMP agent that reports an event. Set. GetNext. Variable Binding: the data field of a GetResponse or Trap messages. If any of these referenced MIBs are missing. This sequence represents: iso (1).1. as maintained by a full-featured network alarm management system. making it more suitable for transporting a large number of status messages. Another term for SNMP manager software or hardware. UDP is a connectionless protocol that does not guarantee delivery of the data packet. and Port 162 carries messages sent in the opposite direction from agents. An OID consists of a series of numbers separated by decimal points.2682.

NetGuardian 480: RTU monitors 80 alarm points. T/MonXM SNMP Trap Processor Software Module: Receives SNMP traps. 4 terminal server SNMP Monitoring Solutions from DPS Telecom Trap Processors Remote Telemetry Units NetGuardian 832A: RTU monitors 32 alarm points. reports in SNMP T/Mon LNX: Full-featured alarm master for up to 1 million alarm points. NetMediator T2S: Protocol mediator converts 8 TBOS ports. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. 8 control relays. Features pager and email alarm notification. 8 analog inputs. 8 terminal server ports. Features support for 25 protocols. 2 control relays. Web Browser access. NetGuardian 216: RTU monitors 16 alarm points. protocol mediation. displays as standard T/Mon alarms. and 8 analog inputs to SNMP. alarm history logging. 4 control relays. T/Mon SLIM: Light capacity regional alarm master.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. Fresno. Available SNMP software: T/MonXM SNMP Agent Software Module: Forwards T/Mon alarms in SNMP. Web Browser access. 4 controls. 32 ping targets. 32 alarm points. pager and e-mail alarm notification. 2 analog inputs.500 alarm points. Remote Alarm Block 176N: Wire-wrap alarm block monitors 176 alarm points. reports in SNMP. reports in SNMP. reports in SNMP. Call 1-800-622-3314 for price and ordering information 18 . standing alarm list and alarm history logging. multi-user access. alarm forwarding. standing alarm list. 1 terminal server port.dpstelecom. 8 control relays. Supports up to 64 devices and 7.

2. Ask the hard questions. 19 . just send it back for a full refund. Get the information you need — register now for a free. There’s dangers you want to avoid — and there’s also opportunities to improve your remote site maintenance that you don’t want to miss. software. you may replace equipment that could have been integrated into your new system. Fresno. developing a network monitoring system on your own is one of the riskiest things you can do. Here are some of the typical problems you might face if you don’t get expert advice when you’re designing your system: 1. look for experience. Your SNMP monitoring solution is backed by a 30-day. Implementation time is drawn out: It’s going to take longer than you think. Ask how many systems they’ve worked with. Opportunities are missed: If you install a new network monitoring system today. Network monitoring is a highly technical subject. no-risk.) DPS Telecom monitoring solutions are proven performers under real-world conditions. DPS Telecom Guarantees Your Success — or Your Money Back When you’re choosing a network monitoring vendor. add some configuration and you’re done. live Web demonstration of SNMP monitoring solutions with the T/Mon Remote Alarm Monitoring System. Be skeptical. money-back guarantee. right? MPLEMENtING AN The truth is. Many telecoms design what they think is a state-of-the-art monitoring system — and then find that their technology is actually a generation behind.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. compare a few features. 3. features and benefits . Don’t take a sales rep’s word that his company can do custom development. You’re never taking any risk when you work with DPS for some examples. Above all. and transportation companies. . What to Do Next Before you make a decision about your SNMP monitoring. DPS Telecom has created hundreds of successful SNMP monitoring implementations for telecoms. You’ll get complete information on hardware. find a few vendors. and check for client Reality Check: Why You Need Help With Your SNMP Implementation I SNMP network alarm monitoring system can seem deceptively easy — you just look on the Web.dpstelecom. specifications. And anytime you are trying to do something you’ve never done before. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. don’t take chances. how many protocols they can integrate to SNMP. specific applications. Resources are misused: If you’re not fully informed about your options for mediating legacy protocols to SNMP. . Rushing into a systemwide replacement when you could have integrated can cost you hundreds of thousands of dollars. plus you’ll be able to ask questions and get straight answers. utility telecoms. you’re committing your company to that system for as long as 8 to 10 years.dpstelecom. Call 1-800-622-3314 today to schedule your free Web demo of SNMP monitoring solutions — or register on the Web at www. you are bound to make mistakes — mistakes that extend your time and your budget beyond their (Check out www. Test your DPS monitoring solution at your site for 30 days. and you have a lot to learn if you want a successful implementation. If you’re dissatisfied for any reason. There’s no obligation to buy — no high-pressure salesmen — just straightforward information to help you make the best decision about your network monitoring. there’s a lot more you need to know.

The SNMP responder was the answer. and I believe that is what DPS is all about. including designing private MIB extensions. We were looking for a way to integrate our local ILEC region in HP OpenView without a major network change. www. EATEL “It is hard to find companies with the intelligence and aptitude to meet the customer’s exact 1-800-622-3314 US $36. and developing SNMP-based monitoring for several nationwide networks. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www.dpstelecom.95 “We protect your network like your business depends on it”TM . DenHartog’s experience with both the theoretical and practical sides of SNMP have equipped him to write a straightforward guide to SNMP for real-world use. This migration will allow us not only to monitor all alarms in one spot but also build extensive collection reports of our whole network.dpstelecom.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue.” —Todd Matherne. Fresno. Pathnet About the Author Marshall DenHartog has 12 years’ experience working with “I would personally like to let you know how beneficial the installation of the SNMP responder was to the mission of our department.” —Lee Wells. creating SNMP systems for multiple platforms.