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SNMP Tutorial: The Fast Track Introduction to SNMP Alarm Monitoring by Marshall DenHartog

Simple Network Management Protocol for real-world telecom network alarm monitoring . . . • Fast, complete introduction to SNMP • Effective telecom alarm monitoring with SNMP • Integrating legacy equipment to SNMP monitoring • Overcoming the limitations of SNMP • Enhanced security with SNMPv3

Version 2.0 Released July 21, 2010

www.dpstelecom.com

1-800-622-3314

US $36.95

“We protect your network like your business depends on it”TM

SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue, Fresno, California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www.dpstelecom.com

© Copyright 2010 DPS Telecom All rights reserved, including the right to reproduce this white paper or portions thereof in any form without written permission from DPS Telecom. For information, please write to DPS Telecom 4955 E. Yale Ave., Fresno, CA 93727-1523 • Call: 1-800-622-3314 • Email: info@dpstele.com Printed in the U.S.A
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Reality Check: 5 Essential Capabilities for SNMP RTUs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Reality Check: How Protocol Mediation Works. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Essential SNMP: What is UDP?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contents Part 1: An Introduction to SNMP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Instead. . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Reality Check: 4 Signs You Need Protocol Mediation . . . . Fresno. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Part 6: 7 Reasons Why a Basic SNMP Manager Is a Lousy Telemetry Master . . . 16 SNMP Product Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Reality Check: How to Get Better Visibility of Your SNMP Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with fast specific answers to help you make SNMP monitoring work in your network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the telecom professional who needs to monitor network alarms with SNMP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .com How This Guidebook Will Help You Most SNMP reference books aren’t written for you. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Reality Check: Why You Need Help With Your SNMP Implementation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . most SNMP books are written for IT techs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Understanding SNMPv3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Part 2: How SNMP Handles Alarm Messages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Essential SNMP: What is the MIB? Part 4: Understanding Packet Types and Structures. . . . . . . . . . . That’s great if you want to manage a computer network. . . . . This guidebook has been created to give you the information you need to successfully implement SNMP-based alarm monitoring in your network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Part 3: Understanding the MIB ( Management Information Base) . . . 10 Reality Check: 7 Features That SNMP Managers Can’t Match. . . . . 10 Case Study: KMC Telecom Saves $2 Million Per Year Through In-House Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Reality Check: What Can SNMP Do for Me? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 What to Do Next. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 SNMP Troubleshooting Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . but it’s useless if you need carrier-grade network visibility of telecom equipment and remote sites. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. . . . . It’s an introduction to SNMP strictly from the prospective of telecom network alarm management. . . .dpstelecom. . . . . . .SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Part 5: Understanding Layered Communication. . . . . . . . 13 Quick and Dirty Checklist: 5 Steps to Start Your SNMP Monitoring Project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 SNMP Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Essential SNMP: What is a Trap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The manager provides the interface between the human network manager and the management system. The agent provides the interface between the manager and the physical device(s) being managed (see illustration). Vendors and users of SNMP equipment can add to the Management Information Base (MIB) to include nearly any kind of device. For a full report on 8 pitfalls to avoid. such as point status or description. fully documented. SNMP is simple. never received the widespread acceptance of SNMP.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. 4 . The MIB is organized in a tree structure with individual variables. • It’s an open standard. but it’s also flexible enough to describe almost anything. To learn more. call 1-800-622-3314 and ask for your free Network Monitoring Needs Analysis. LAN data transport reduces installation and operation costs and transports alarm data more reliably. INCE ITs CREATION Reality Check: What Can SNMP Do For Me? S SNMP was derived from its predecessor SGMP (Simple Gateway Management Protocol) and was intended to be replaced by a solution based on the CMIS/CMIP (Common Management Information Service/Protocol) architecture. an SNMP manager can correctly interpret alarm data from any device that supports SNMP. This long-term solution. managed objects and the network protocol. SNMP has achieved widespread acceptance. If you’re not careful. an agent. call DPS at 1-800-622-3314. Part 1: An Introduction to SNMP S in 1988 as a short-term solution to manage elements in the growing Internet and other attached networks. Fresno. Alarm messages (Traps) are sent by the agent to the manager. That’s what’s good about SNMP — but there’s also some pitfalls that you have to watch out for. creating greater interoperability between different parts of your network. being represented as leaves on the branches. NMP The advantages of SNMP are: • It’s LAN-based. The manager and agent use a Management Information Base (MIB) and a relatively small set of commands to exchange information.dpstelecom. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. SNMP is non-proprietary. and supported by multiple vendors. SNMP is based on the manager/agent model consisting of a manager. SNMP uses a manager/agent architecture. A long numeric tag or object identifier (OID) is used to distinguish each variable uniquely in the MIB and in SNMP messages. Moving your alarm monitoring off dedicated copper lines and onto existing LAN/WAN infrastructure creates significant savings. You can avoid the risks (and guarantee the benefits) of your SNMP implementation by working with an experienced vendor who can help you accurately determine your network monitoring needs.com Management System Managed Element Human Network Manager Manager Network Protocol Messages Agent Management Database Management Database Managed Objects Figure 1. If it’s supplied with the right MIB file. however. a database of management information. it’s easy to wind up with a system that costs too much and does too little. • It can be easily extended. can do a lot to make your network alarm monitoring more cost-effective and your network more reliable — if you clearly identify your network monitoring goals and have the right tools to achieve them. • It provides a common management platform for many different devices.

Essential SNMP: What is a Trap? An SNMP Trap is a change-of-state (COS) message — it could mean an alarm. Fiber. 5 . This simplicity has led directly to its widespread use.dpstelecom. expandable alarm capacity. A Set message allows the manager to request a change be made to the value of a specific variable in the case of an alarm remote that will operate a relay. a clear or simply a status message. intrusion alarms. Set and Trap) to communicate between the manager and the agent. 5. and Set) are only issued by the SNMP manager. An RTU with control relay outputs will let you operate remote site equipment directly from your NOC. it is the message used by DPS Telecom remote telemetry units (RTUs) to report alarms. 2. The agent will then respond with a GetResponse message indicating the change has been made or an error indication as to why the change cannot be made. all of which can critically affect equipment performance. so it’s difficult to tell what’s happening in your network by looking at a list of Traps. Many devices can output SNMP Traps — when you’re evaluating an RTU. will issue a GetResponse message to the manager with either the information requested or an error indication as to why the request cannot be processed. You often have to parse variable bindings to decode a Trap. beacons. To make sure the meaning of a Trap is understood. specifically in the Internet Network Management Framework. all DPS Telecom SNMP equipment transmits a unique Trap ID for both alarm and clear for each alarm point. This notifies the SNMP manager as soon as an alarm condition occurs. Dial-Up. GetResponse. request a live Web demo at www. basic SNMP managers don’t keep a standing alarm list. it is considered robust because of the independence of the managers from the agents. the RTU will send an alarm as an SNMP Trap. GetNext.dpstelecom. 4. Because the Trap message is the only message capable of being initiated by an agent. Analog alarms monitor temperature. Unlike a classic telemetry master. GetNext. The other simplifying factor is its reliance on an unsupervised or connectionless communication link. Control relays: Don’t waste time and money sending a technician to a remote site miles away simply to turn a switch. or serial. and flood and fire detectors. providing immediate notification that the device has failed or gone offline. LAN access via dial-up connection and more. To learn more about DPS RTUs. The agent. or vice versa. 3. look instead at how many alarm monitoring functions it can perform. if an agent fails. analog alarms measure continuously variable levels of voltage or current. Your devices connect to the RTU’s serial ports. 6. Discrete alarm inputs (also called digital inputs or contact closures): These are typically used to monitor equipment failures. humidity and pressure. Within this framework. The Trap message allows the agent to spontaneously inform the manager of an “important” event. instead of waiting for the SNMP manager to ask. giving you immediate Telnet access via LAN from your NOC at any time. CDMA/GSM Wireless. You can minimize costs by getting an RTU that supports your available transport . The small number of commands used is only one of the reasons SNMP is simple. It supports your transport: You may not have LAN available at every site. most of the messages (Get. T1. Analog alarm inputs: While discrete alarms monitor on/off conditions.LAN. Reality Check: What Features Do I Need in an SNMP RTU? H find the right SNMP RTU? Look for more features than just SNMP support. The Get and GetNext messages allow the manager to request information for a specific variable. the manager will continue to function. As you can see. Terminal server function: Your RTU can also serve as a terminal server to remote-site serial devices. If a device fails to respond. that is.com/webdemo.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. DPS Telecom offers SNMP RTUs that meet all these requirements — and offer stand-alone local visibility through any web browser. Ping alarms: An RTU that supports ping alarms will ping devices on your network at regular intervals. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www.com Part 2: How SNMP Handles Alarm Messages SNMP UsEs FIVE basic messages (Get. upon receiving a Get or GetNext message. OW DO YOU Here are 5 essential features that your SNMP RTU must have: 1. Fresno.

The MIB is also a guide to the capabilities of your SNMP devices. if your device’s MIB lists OIDs for Traps but not for GetResponse messages. The branch of the MIB object identifier tree that represents managed elements used by DPS Telecom equipment.2682. If the OID is found (the object is managed by the element). it will assemble a GET packet that includes the OID for each object/characteristic of interest. or the element uptime. multifunction alarm master with advanced features like programmable custom alarms. The MIB associates each OID with a readable label (e. automatic alarm correction. Advanced features like these can make the difference between a minor incident and major downtime. ACH sNMP root Reality Check: How to Get Better Visibility of Your SNMP Alarms Receiving Traps is Only the Beginning of Effective SNMP Monitoring T between basic alarm monitoring and intelligent alarm management.6. Well-designed SNMP managers can use the bindings to correlate and manage the events. the system name.. if possible. A simple system cannot get alarm information to the people who can correct problems quick enough to make a difference. hERE’s A BIG DIFFERENCE ccitt (0) iso (1) joint-iso-ccitt (3) org (3) dod (6) internet (1) 1. When an element sends a Trap packet.2682.1. SNMP managers will also generally display the readable labels to facilitate user understanding and 6 Essential SNMP: What is the MIB? The MIB lists the unique object identifier (OID) of each managed element in an SNMP network. Figure 2.4. These object identifiers naturally form a tree as shown in the below illustration. potentially resulting in serious damage to your network and your revenue. you know it will report alarms.1 dpsAlarmControl (1) TMonXM (1) dpsRTU (2) Intelligent Notification An intelligent alarm management system won’t just tell personnel there’s a problem. call 1-800-622-3314 today to register for a live Web demonstration or register on the Web at www. DPS remote units send a comprehensive set of bindings with each Trap to maintain traditional telemetry event visibility.1). it can include OID and value information (bindings) to clarify the event. If the OID is not found. such as the state of an alarm point. The MIB then serves as a data dictionary or codebook that is used to assemble and interpret SNMP messages. it will locate the problem. Fresno.1. But simple status reports don’t provide effective full visibility of your network.dpstelecom. provide instructions for corrective action. Any basic system will give you some kind of notification of an alarm.6. Each object/characteristic has a unique object identifier (OID) consisting of numbers separated by decimal points (e.6.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. and that’s a crucial edge to have in today’s competitive telecom industry. but will not respond to alarm polls.1 directory (1) mgmt (2) experimental (3) private (4) enterprises (1) dpsInc (2682) 1. e-mail and pager alarm notification. Using a basic alarm monitoring system makes it more likely that faults will not be corrected. T/Mon is a multiprotocol.3. Learning to read MIBs is difficult. When an SNMP manager wants to know the value of an object/characteristic. a special error response is sent that identifies the unmanaged object..1. If you want these features. To learn more about T/Mon. but it’s worth the trouble. And some problems require immediate action far faster than any human being can respond.3. The element receives the request and looks up each OID in its code book (MIB). you need the T/ Mon Remote Alarm Monitoring System. correct the problem automatically. a response packet is assembled and sent with the current value of the object / characteristic included. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www.dpstelecom. 1.g.1. . dpsRTUAState) and various other parameters related to the object.3.com/webdemo. Automated Correction Your staff can’t hover around a screen watching for alarms with their full attention 24/7. alarm filtering and silencing and more. and.com Part 3: Understanding the MIB (Management Information Base) E element manages specific objects with each object having specific characteristics.g. route alarm information directly to the people who need it. For example.4. Your SNMP manager can’t monitor your devices unless it has compiled their MIB files.

Changing out a large number of non-SNMP devices can add hundreds of thousands of dollars to your project costs. Expanded serial telemetry protocols. L the communication between managers and agents. Unlike TCP.. You can’t afford to replace this network. Figure 3 (above) shows the packet formats. are packet oriented with packets of bytes exchanged to communicate. 4. you might find yourself responsible for a whole new network of incompatible equipment. Protocol mediation saves you money by keeping your non-SNMP equipment in place. Basic serial telemetry protocols. that can get real expensive real fast. UDP does not guarantee message delivery. The packets contain header.. The manager sends a Set to change a variable or variables and the agent’s response confirms the change if allowed. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. UDP is a connectionless protocol. The agent sends a Trap when a specific event occurs. like TABS. You have a lot of non-SNMP equipment: Before planning your SNMP implementation.the master is starting to fail. with a single byte exchanged to communicate. 3. Each variable binding contains an identifier. at only one license fee.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. so you can replace your legacy system step by step. The agent checks each identifier against its MIB to determine whether the object is managed and changeable (if processing a Set).com IP datagram UDP datagram common SNMP header PDU type (0-3) SNMP message get / set header request error status error ID (0-5) index variables to get / set IP header UDP header version community (0) name value name value . and it’s hard to get new remotes. The manager uses its MIB to display the readable name of Essential SNMP: What is UDP? UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is the IP transport layer protocol that supports SNMP messages. But you can’t afford a forklift swapout of your whole system. You inherited someone else’s incompatible system: If your company has merged with another. 2. The SNMP data packet is enclosed in the UDP data packet.dpstelecom. A protocol mediator can take input from your whole network and consolidate it to one SNMP input. do a site survey and find out how much non-SNMP equipment you have in your network. decision-making. Part 4: Understanding Packet Types and Structure Reality Check: 4 Signs You Need Protocol Mediation 1. which is enclosed in the IP data packet. You don’t want to pay license fees: You may have to pay a separate license fee for every device you monitor with your SNMP manager. 7 . Fresno. Protocol mediation will merge your two networks at minimal expense. You want to gradually migrate from your old system: It’s time to replace your older system . data and checksum bytes. like TBOS. Figure 3. but you need to integrate it into your existing operations. are byte-oriented. If you have a large network. a type and a value (if a Set or GetResponse). but it’s a lightweight protocol that can transport a large number of status messages without using too many network resources. A UDP host places messages on the network without first establishing a connection with the recipient. SNMP is also packet oriented with the following SNMP v1 packets (Protocol Data Units or PDUs) used to communicate: ET’s EXAMINE Get GetNext Set GetResponse Trap The manager sends a Get or GetNext to read a variable or variables and the agent’s response contains the requested information if managed. Protocol mediation lets you integrate your old remotes with an SNMP manager.

and can forward alarm data to other devices in a wide variety of protocols. E CONTINUE P converts legacy alarms to SNMP Traps. In that case. analog and ping alarms. the correct solution is to mediate Traps from the SNMP devices into the protocols used by your existing master. RG58 co-axial or fiber). Management Application Get-Next GetResponse Event Get Set Application Manages Objects Get SNMP Manager UDP IP Link SNMP Messages SNMP Agent UDP IP Link Mediating SNMP to Other Protocols Alternatively. contact DPS Telecom’s Sales Engineers at sales@dpstele. UDP resides in the Transport layer and IP resides in the Internet layer (somewhat obvious). DPS Telecom offers the NetGuardian 832A and the NetMediator. either for your central office or equipment in the field. Fresno. The NetMediator includes all the local site monitoring capabilities of the NetGuardian. mediates all alarm data to a common format. let’s look at a single SNMP GET request from the agent’s 8 Set . Communications Network Figure 4. ROtOCOL MEDIAtION SNMP resides in what is called the Application layer. however an SNMP message is not sent by itself. you most likely are collecting SNMP Traps from diverse equipment at various sites. but you need to monitor native SNMP devices like switches. you may have a non-SNMP master that is deeply embedded in your network. This solution is more practical and less expensive than replacing your existing master.com the variable and sometimes interpret its value. and also avoids the trouble and costs of installing and maintaining a specialized SNMP manager to monitor only SNMP equipment. ASCII. These are commonly referred to as layers and are based on a four-layer model developed by the Department of Defense (you may recall the DoD origins of the Internet). enabling you to monitor all your equipment from your SNMP manager. T/Mon collects alarms from many different types of equipment and protocols. The fourth layer is the Network Interface layer where the assembled packet is actually interfaced to some kind of transport media (for example. which in turn is wrapped in the Internet Protocol (IP). For help with protocol mediation devices. v2c. Part 5: Understanding Layered Communication A Critical Tool for Troubleshooting Communication Problems Reality Check: How Protocol Mediation Works W to examine the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) focusing specifically on the layered communication model used to exchange information. twisted pair copper. and DACs. Traversing the Layers To illustrate the function of this layered model. While this multi-layer model may seem a bit confusing. routers. or v3) to multiple SNMP managers. It is wrapped in the User Datagram Protocol (UDP).com or 1-800-693-0351. including Modbus. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. it effectively isolates the tasks of SNMP Management System SNMP Managed System Managed Resources SNMP Managed Objects GetResponse Get-Next Event Mediating other protocols to SNMP For remote-site mediation. communication and ultimately assists in designing and implementing a network. NetMediator For central-office mediation. then forwards the data as SNMP Traps (v1. The NetGuardian is an SNMP-based remote telemetry unit that accepts inputs from discrete. The last section focused on the structure of SNMP messages. DNP3. and more.dpstelecom. NetGuardian 832A plus it can mediate TBOS and TABS alarms to SNMP. An SNMP message passes through the protocol layers at both the manager and agent. You need a central office mediation solution that will collect the incoming Traps in one place and mediate them all to different protocols before forwarding them to the higher level master. Each layer does a specific communication task. including SNMP Traps. If you are mediating alarms from SNMP to other protocols.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. the T/ Mon Remote Alarm Monitoring System serves as a general protocol mediation solution.

The UDP layer adds a data block that identifies the manager port to which the response packet should be sent and the port on which it expects the SNMP agent to be listening for messages. The IP layer verifies the Media Access and IP address and passes it on to the UDP layer where the target port is checked for connected applications. The packet thus formed is then passed to the IP layer. LAN/WAN link and activity status indicators provide some visibility to the Network Interface layer. How to Learn SNMP the Easy Way: Attend DPS Telecom Factory Training “I had heard of SNMP. SNMP is an applications-layer component of the TCP/IP suite of protocols perspective. SNMP processing indicators can be used to verify the passage of the packet through the UDP layer and the functioning of the Application layer. The Network Interface layer verifies media access and availability and places the packet on the media for transport. SNMP’s location in the TCP/IP protocol stack.com/training. Here it passes through the same four layers in exactly the opposite order as it did at the manager. When there is a problem. The SNMP manager wants to know what the Agent’s System Name is and prepares a GET message for the appropriate OID. the GET request is processed as we have discussed in previous articles. If an application is listening at the target port. The agent response then follows the identical path in reverse to reach the manager.dpstelecom. the Network Interface layer simply passes it to the IP layer.com Application Layer Transport Layer Internet Layer Network Access Physical Layer SNMP SMTP UDP IP PPP Telnet HTTP TCP FTP ICMP SLIP USART ARP Ethernet Modem Figure 5. After confirming that the packet is intact and valid. It then passes the message to the UDP layer. At a DPS Factory Training Event. First. and automatic e-mail and pager notifications. you can simply trace it down.” —Derek Willis. in a totally practical class that will teach you how to get the most from your network monitoring. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www.dpstelecom. Troubleshooting IP Communication Problems Understanding this layered model makes it easier to troubleshoot communication problems.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. but I never knew what SNMP was until I learned it at DPS Factory Training. Fresno. Each step can be verified independently until all steps are working correctly for end-to-end communication. and up the other. 9 . ICMP echo requests and responses (PINGs) provide some information regarding the proper functioning of the IP layer. EARN Each 4-day training course covers SNMP alarm monitoring ASCII alarm parsing and processing. Here a data block containing the IP and Media Access addresses of the manager and the agent is added before the entire assembled packet gets passed to the Network Interface layer. the packet finally arrives at the agent. the packet is passed to the Application layer. Paul Bunyan Telephone L SNMP IN-DEPTH and hands-on. It’s the easiest and most complete way to learn SNMP alarm monitoring from the technicians who have designed hundreds of successful SNMP monitoring implementations For Factory Training Events dates and registration information. configuring and using derived alarms and controls. call 1-800-693-3314 today or visit us on the Web at http://www. out one end. you’ll learn how to turn SNMP theory into a practical plan for improving your network visibility. it is pulled off the media by the Network Interface layer. After working its way across bridges and through routers (the modern equivalent of over the rivers and through the woods) based on the IP information. into. If the listening application is the SNMP agent. I’m not at all scared about SNMP now.

Send alarm notifications directly to maintenance personnel. Sign up for a Web demo of T/Mon at www. If you’re used to the standards of classic telecom telemetry. System operators. an off-the-shelf SNMP manager will not provide the detailed alarm data you expect. Every notification includes full information about the alarm. date/ time stamp. Even if the system operator acknowledges the alarm. Creating this addition to the Trap association database often requires analyzing multiple variable bindings within the Trap packet. Fresno. location. but it may require substantial custom software development. 7. Easy to Use Web Interface that provides quick access to alarms for technicians on the go. Before you commit to an SNMP monitoring solution. Text message windows displaying specific instructions for the appropriate action for an alarm.dpstelecom. T/Mon filters out nuisance alarms.com/webdemo . either by laptop or smartphone. These capabilities can be added to an SNMP manager. Because of these advantages.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue.dpstelecom. it remains in the Standing Alarms screen until it is cleared. many network managers have come to believe that SNMP should be used for all telemetry monitoring applications. SNMP certainly has its place in an effective telemetry monitoring solution. time. 6. Basic SNMP managers don’t provide complete. Pager and e-mail notifications. including its severity. Using off-the-shelf SNMP systems for mission-critical telemetry is disappointing at best and disastrous at worst. Immediate notification of changes of state (COSs). Nuisance alarm filtering. even if they’re away from the NOC. You don’t have to hunt to find out what’s changed in your network — T/Mon lists it for you. even without extra training. and a user-defined description. The typical off-the-shelf SNMP manager is not designed for displaying and processing telemetry data. will know precisely what to do and who to call in case of an alarm. Basic SNMP managers can’t identify cleared alarms Even more work is required to identify whether a Trap represents an alarm or a clear condition. 10 The T/Mon Remote Alarm Monitoring System provides total visibility of your network status and automatically notifies the right people to keep your network running. but this doesn’t mean that any off-the-shelf SNMP manager can provide adequate visibility and control of your network. you must create and maintain a master alarm list representing all the monitored points in your network — and then also create and maintain a database associating all the Traps that may be sent to the SNMP manager with the alarms on that list. 3.com Part 6: 7 Reasons Why a Basic SNMP Manager Is a Lousy Telemetry Master S protocol that has wide acceptance in the industry and is flexible enough to describe almost anything. Detailed alarm notifications in plain English that your staff will immediately understand and take action on. To adapt an off-the-shelf SNMP manager to monitor these factors. especially not for the kind of real-world monitoring tasks network managers most need performed. allowing your staff to focus its attention on serious threats. 2. Before you buy … check for these 7 essential telemetry features: 1. NMP Is A sTANDARD Reality Check: 7 Features That SNMP Managers Can’t Match 1. Unimportant alarms that generate meaningless status notices or oscillate between alarm and clear conditions subconsciously train your staff to ignore the alarm monitoring system. 4. 2. precise alarm descriptions A basic SNMP manager doesn’t record location. 5. severity or descriptions of alarm events. Derived alarms and controls that combine and correlate data from multiple alarm inputs and automatically control remote site equipment to correct complex threats. you need to make sure it supports essential telemetry functions. including new alarms and alarms that have cleared. A continuously updated list of all current standing alarms. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. 8.

but neither one needs to know about all the alarms in the network. The need for extensive customization eliminates the advantage of using a simple open standard. There is no question that SNMP is right for many applications. Even when pre-built software modules are available. Basic SNMP managers don’t maintain a history of standing alarms Relying on a basic SNMP manager for alarm management can potentially result in completely losing visibility of threats to your network. it would be impossible to determine who had made the mistake or to assign responsibility for the resulting problems. for whatever reason. of these functions can be added to standard SNMP managers. fails to correct the alarm condition. both need to know about a generator failure in Tucson. it is considered cleared. but it’s only one item in your telemetry monitoring toolkit. As soon as a Trap is acknowledged. and Smith is in charge of power plants. Basic SNMP managers don’t sort or filter alarms Basic SNMP managers have no built-in functions for organizing alarms by logical category. the other manager needs to know it was acknowledged and by whom. SNMP-capable network alarm management system? And in fact. standard SNMP managers will not support these functions. the typical SNMP manager maintains an event log of newly reported Traps and a history log of acknowledged Traps. Basic SNMP managers don’t provide the alarm notification you need No SNMP manager supports the advanced features necessary for best quality telemetry monitoring. 7. it is much easier to adapt a traditional telemetry master to process SNMP Traps than to adapt an SNMP manager to perform telemetry functions. and all users may acknowledge all alarms. and expense to recreate capabilities that are already present in a high-quality. If Jones is in charge of all equipment for the Western region. legacy protocol mediation.com 11 . trouble.dpstelecom. or sorting which alarms the user wants to see. 5.com 3. but implementing telemetry monitoring in a basic SNMP manager usually involves a substantial amount of custom software module development. Who would know the alarm is still standing? 4. Fresno. automatic control relay operation. And if one manager corrects the alarm condition and acknowledges the alarm. send an email to: solutions@dpstelecom. It is true that many. In the example of the negligent system operator. Unfortunately. Basic SNMP managers are insufficiently secure for multiple users Out of the box. Basic SNMP managers don’t identify system operators Basic SNMP managers do not record the identity of the system operator who acknowledges an alarm. all users may view all alarms. posting the same alarm to multiple logical categories. 6. and then. but not all. and it is clear that SNMP will be increasingly used in the future. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. Instead. such as notifications escalation. and it is difficult to justify significant development costs after purchasing an already expensive SNMP manager. Why take the time. All Traps are posted to one alarm list. nuisance alarm silencing. they usually require custom tweaking to perform exactly as you want them to. Imagine what might happen to your network if a system operator acknowledges an alarm. and it can be used more effectively when it is part of a total alarm management solution. and automatic notifications by pager and e-mail. SNMP is an effective tool. For details about an alarm management system that overcomes these 7 barriers . the typical SNMP manager is not designed for multi-user security. A basic SNMP manager doesn’t maintain a list of standing alarms.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue.

But as the network grew. KMC created a highly successful network operations center in Huntsville.000 miles across 35 states. data. ” 12 .SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. KMC had outsourced network monitoring since the foundation of its fiber optic network in the mid-1990s. it became more and more practical for us to take monitoring in house. asked itself in 2001. “ It’s really added to our peace of mind to be able to see what’s going on real-time ” “We’d outsourced our monitoring since we deployed our facilities network. where it is displayed using HP OpenView internet usage manager software. KMC has saved substantially on operations costs while creating a real-time monitoring capability that proved itself during November’s tornado strike. Ala. a fast-growing integrated provider of voice. Huntsville. “We’ve cut the operational expenses significantly. which stretches over 30. Monitor data from the NetGuardians is sent as SNMP Traps to the Huntsville NOC.” Moses says that operating its own NOC has saved KMC millions. Until last year KMC relied on an outsource provider to monitor its fiber optic network. and Internet services.” The Huntsville NOC relies on the alarm collection capacity of DPS Telecom’s NetGuardian. The NetGuardian equipment was a part of that.com Case Study: KMC Telecom saves $2 million per year through in-house monitoring W someone to do something you can do yourself? That was the question KMC Telecom.000 alarm points. power. Moses says the decision to use the NetGuardian came from knowledge of the quality of older DPS Telecom products and research into current alarm monitoring offerings “ DPS Telecom gives us a reliable way of accessing a variety of equipment. Fresno. This should give you some idea of the scope of KMC’s operations. KMC has NetGuardians in 48 different locations across the United States. In reliable hands: KMC Telecom’s team now has total control at their finger tips.dpstelecom. altogether. KMC decided it could save money by monitoring their network themselves. The total project resulted in about $2 million a year in savings. We now have a common interface for our existing system. They no longer have to pay for outsourced monitoring and are finding their response times to netdirector of operations for KMC in work outages have improved now that they can view alarm events in real-time. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. the Huntsville NOC monitors approximately 3. regardless of the brand or provider. HY PAY KMC’s move from outsourced to in-house monitoring was one more milestone in the telecom’s growth from start-up to major-league CLEC. “For most start-ups. We’re looking at cost savings and how to integrate costs. and security alarms in KMC’s numerous remote sites. The growth of the company and its network had by 2001 created a situation where it was both possible and necessary to use economies of scale to cut operational costs.” says Harold Moses. KMC has deployed 60 NetGuardians and 120 NetGuardian Expansions. where they monitor the integrity of KMC’s fiber optic network as well as environmental. Since the Huntsville NOC began operation. it’s not economical to do these things for yourself.

manager of the Huntsville NOC. The EngineID is used to generate the key for authenticated messages. The Cost of Security Nothing is free. work. Fresno. “The NetGuardian is tightly integrated with the way we work. a part of the Universal Security Model (USM). “We have automatic backup generators. Privacy is especially useful in applications where SNMP messages must be routed over the Internet.” Stinson says. The key is shared with the inteneded recipient and used to receive the message. 13 . regardless of the brand or provider. in terms of the various software options and terminal capacity. “Nine out of 10 of these sites are unmanned. but security is the most significant in the majority of SNMP applications. It would have taken us several minutes longer to respond if we were still using outsourced monitoring. Pennsylvania. The deciding factor was that the NetGuardian gave KMC a cost-effective means of using its existing equipment.” Monitoring the network in-house has also improved KMC’s monitoring visibility in ways that integrated with the way we are impossible to accomplish with a third-party provider. SNMPv3 can be the secure network management solution you need. but you must be prepared for the additional processing time required to calculate EngineID’s during authentication and encrypting/decrypting Privacy-enabled messages. Privacy The other of the two SNMPv3 security types.” Stinson says. ” Understanding SNMPv3 SNMPV3 FEATURES several enhancements over earlier versions. SNMPv4? In an effort to reduce the need for future versions of SNMP. the NetGuardian was the solution that made the most sense for cost and capability. This is expected to make the lifespan of SNMPv3 longer than its predecessors. Being able to do realtime in-house monitoring probably shaved 30 minutes off our response time. Any intercepted traps will be filled with garbled characters and will be unreadable. We now have a common interface for our existing system.com from a number of vendors. We thought that the NetGuardian had a lot of flexibility. Authentication Authentication is one of two types of security available in SNMPv3. We did quite a lot of research of what was available. “DPS Telecom gave us a reliable way of accessing a variety of equipment. “NetGuardian was the only solution that met both our technical and our budget needs.” says Stinson. It is used to ensure that traps are read by only the intended recipient. As messages are created. and Tennessee. Conflicts can occur if two SNMP entities have duplicate EngineID’s.” says Moses. If you don’t need the security.” Traps and its tight integration with HP OpenView. Privacy encrypts the payload of the SNMP message to ensure that it cannot be read by unauthorized users. Ultimately. Ohio. the SNMPv3 protocol was designed with greater flexibility than previous versions.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. in how it handles SNMP Traps and its tight integration The NetGuardian is tightly with HP OpenView. The “EngineID” Unique Identifier The EngineID in SNMPv3 uniquely identifies each SNMP entity. Mississippi. SNMPv3 encrypts messages using CBC-DES encryption. “ “It’s really added to our peace of mind to be able to see what’s going on real-time. they are given a special key that is based on the EngineID of the entity. According to Dale Stinson. knocking out the commercial power supply to several KMC Telecom sites. but we still need to send a technician to the site. you’re probably best running an earlier version that is simpler to maintain. in how it handles SNMP Stinson adds. including encryption to protect the contents of any intercepted traps. Outsourced monitoring can’t see problems in real time.dpstelecom. you must decide if the enhanced security of SNMPv3 is worth the cost in your application. The real-time monitoring capability was of great service on the morning of Nov. 11. SNMPv3 messages may be protected in 2 ways. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. Tornados had ripped through Alabama.

Check for SNMP-ready transport: LAN.com 5 Steps You Can Take Today to Start Your SNMP Monitoring Project Quick and Dirty SNMP Checklist 0 Assess Your Existing Network Start with a thorough assessment of your exiting network equipment and data transport. channel bank. the more you’ll save on capital expenditures. and version number. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. so it’s important to make sure that you have the correct MIB for your equipment type. order wire or PPP over a dial-up or direct link 0 Make sure transport has adequate bandwidth for UDP traffic 0 Check if low-bandwidth transport can be rerouted to high-bandwidth 0 Survey Your Existing Equipment 0 0 0 0 Determine how much of your currently existing network elements support SNMP. MIB files are equipment specific. This will avoid the costs of a systemwide replacement. 0 Survey Your Existing Data Transport 0 The biggest challenge in your SNMP implementation is ensuring you have enough bandwidth for SNMP traffic. Use protocol mediation solutions to make your existing network SNMP ready. checking for what you already have that’s compatible with SNMP.dpstelecom.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. Fresno. so you can plan systematically what upgrades will be necessary for SNMP-based monitoring Equipment that natively supports SNMP Equipment that can be firmware upgraded to support SNMP Equipment that can be swapped out for a later SNMP model Equipment that cannot be economically replaced with a direct SNMP equivalent (Don’t replace this equipment — look for a protocol mediation solution instead) 0 Collect MIB Files for Your Equipment Make sure that you have the correct Management Information Base (MIB) files for all of your equipment. The MIB file enables the SNMP manager to interpret Trap messages from devices. Examine your present telemetry map. model. overhead channel. The more you can keep. keeping your budget within reasonable limits . 0 Plan Your SNMP Implementation Budget 14 Watch out for the capital expenditure and installation manpower costs of a forklift swapout. Identify existing transport and identify what adjustments need to be made.

there is an error in the network settings. check the firewall configuration. If your RTU is a DPS Telecom unit. If no packet sniffer is available. check SNMP manager configuration 0 Double-check Trap community string settings 0 Make sure that the right MIB file for the RTU has been compiled on the SNMP manager 0 If no Trap packets are arriving at the SNMP manager. Consult your network administrator. proceed to the next step. use the Analyze mode of your included configuration software. check network communication between the SNMP manager and the RTU 0 Ping the RTU from the SNMP manager the manager.dpstelecom. 15 .com Not getting Traps from your SNMP RTU? Here’s some quick troubleshooting steps to isolate the problem: SNMP Troubleshooting Guide 0 Check RTU configuration 0 Is the Trap address set to the correct IP address for the SNMP manager? 0 Is the RTU configured to send Traps to Port 162? (Port 162 is the standard port for receiving SNMP Traps — if your SNMP manager uses a different port. Fresno. make sure all devices are configured for the same port) 0 Are all alarm points on the RTU configured to send Traps? 0 Does the Trap community string on the RTU match the Trap community string on the SNMP manager? 0 Use packet sniffer at RTU end to make sure Trap PDUs are sent.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. If the ping is unsuccessful. 0 If RTU configuration is correct. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. Reconfigure firewall to allow UDP traffic at Port 162 (or port used by your SNMP manager) 0 Use packet sniffer at SNMP manager end to make sure Trap PDUs are arriving at 0 If Trap packets are arriving.

like alarm status. not all of which are important for telemetry. etc.dpstelecom. Secret authentication keys are generated based upon the EngineID of the SNMP entity. system uptime. control relay status. To monitor SNMP devices. The GetNext request retrieves the value of the managed object one number after the OID listed in the request. a MIB file must be formatted in a text file according to the Structure of Management Information (SMI) standard. To compile properly. which in turn runs over IP. An entity may send an empty message to another entity to request its EngineID prior to initiating communication.com SNMP Glossary Agent: A hardware device or software program that reports to an SNMP manager. Authentication: An SNMPv3 security measure that ensures that only the intended recipient receives the SNMP message. Compiling: The process of importing a MIB file into an SNMP manager. The ability to filter unimportant events is essential for high-quality SNMP alarm management Get: An SNMP message issued by a manager that requests the status of a managed object. a unique identifier for each SNMP entity. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. In network alarm management. Community string: An SNMP security password. GetNext: An SNMP message issued by a manager. routers and hubs can also act as SNMP agents. but other network devices like switches. Fresno. your SNMP manager must compile the MIB file for each equipment type in your network. SNMP runs over UDP. Event: In SNMP terms. Write Community: Allows an SNMP manager to issue Set messages Trap Community: Allows an SNMP agent to issue Trap messages. COS (Change of State) alarm: A telemetry alarm that is clearly labeled as reporting a change in status from clear to alarm or from alarm to clear. The manager can issue Get. Manager: A top-level SNMP master system (hardware or software) serving as the human interface to the SNMP network. used to walk down a range of OIDs. This is more robust than a standard trap and offers better reliability. Management Information Base (MIB): The MIB is a data structure that describes SNMP network elements as a list of data objects. which mediates T/Mon alarms to SNMP traps. GetNext or Set request from the SNMP manager. There are three kinds of community strings: Read Community: Allows an SNMP manager to issue Get and GetNext messages. An SNMP agent can also be a subsection of a larger device. GetResponse: SNMP message issued by an agent in response to a Get. EngineID: In SNMPv3. GetNext and Set requests to agents and receives GetResponse and Trap 16 . Managed Objects: Values of network devices that can be read or overwritten by the SNMP manager. like the SNMP Agent software module in T/MonXM. every network device is defined in the MIB as a set of managed objects. an SNMP agent is typically an RTU. Inform Notification: An SNMP message (supported in some v2c and v3 implementations) that is similar to a trapbut requires a confirmation response from the manager. SNMP equipment can generate traps for many different kinds of events. any change of status in a managed object in the network. Internet Protocol (IP): the network layer datagram protocol of the TCP/IP protocol suite. but it also consumes more network resources. In SNMP terms.

Proxy agent: An SNMP agent that translates non-SNMP messages and inputs to SNMP. Protocol Data Unit (PDU): An SNMP message. UDP. Fresno. If any of these referenced MIBs are missing. the transport protocol used for SNMP does not establish a connection or guarantee delivery. org (3). GetResponse and Trap. UDP is a connectionless protocol that does not guarantee delivery of the data packet. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): the more common transport layer protocol in the TCP/IP suite. This sequence represents: iso (1). For example. Devices that mediate other alarms in other protocols to SNMP. a proxy agent is usually an RTU that converts contact closure inputs to SNMP traps. An OID consists of a series of numbers separated by decimal points. In network alarm monitoring. Ports 161 and 162: The virtual ports most commonly used to transmit SNMP messages.dpstelecom. but a standing alarm list displays every alarm that has not been reported as cleared by the monitoring equipment. private (4). internet (1).6.2682. 17 . so the contents of intercepted messages will not be readable. Privacy: An SNMPv3 security measure.4. Another term for SNMP manager software or hardware.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. like the NetMediator T2S (TBOS to SNMP) is also a proxy agent.3. UDP uses fewer network resources than TCP. TCP is considered a “reliable” protocol because it establishes a connection between the host and the recipient. MD5: One process for generating authentication/privacy keys in SNMPv3 applications. making it more suitable for transporting a large number of status messages. Referenced (RFC) MIBs: MIBs that are required by the main MIB during compiling. However. Packet Internet Gopher (PING): An ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) echo request to determine whether a device on an IP network is online. Unlike TCP. dod (6). Port 161 is used for messages sent by the manager. Privacy encrypts the message contents using a key.1. Each decimal point represents a leaf node in the tree structure of the MIB. Set. Object Identifier (OID): A number that uniquely identifies a managed object in an SNMP network.1. the main MIB will not compile properly. There are 5 types of PDU in SNMP v1: Get. and Port 162 carries messages sent in the opposite direction from agents. enterprises (1). GetNext. like the NetGuardian 832A. Trap: An SNMP message issued by an SNMP agent that reports an event. Standard SNMP managers automatically delete all acknowledged traps. guaranteeing delivery. as maintained by a full-featured network alarm management system. NMS: Network Management Software or Network Management System. Variable Binding: the data field of a GetResponse or Trap PDU. Set: An SNMP message issued by a manager instructing an agent to change a Managed object to a new value SHA: One process for generating authentication/privacy keys in SNMPv3 applications. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP): the standard TCP/IP protocol for managing IP network devices. all OIDs for DPS Telecom equipment begin with the numbers 1. User Datagram Protocol (UDP): the transport layer protocol used to send SNMP messages.com messages. Each variable binding lists a managed object and its current value. Standing alarm list: A list of all uncleared alarms. dpsInc (2682). Structure of Management Information (SMI): the standard that defines the MIB structure.

8 analog inputs.com SNMP Monitoring Solutions from DPS Telecom Trap Processors Remote Telemetry Units NetGuardian 832A: RTU monitors 32 alarm points. protocol mediation. Supports up to 64 devices and 7. 32 alarm points. alarm forwarding.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. T/MonXM SNMP Trap Processor Software Module: Receives SNMP traps. 4 control relays. pager and e-mail alarm notification. 2 control relays. NetGuardian 216: RTU monitors 16 alarm points. 8 control relays. NetMediator T2S: Protocol mediator converts 8 TBOS ports. Features support for 25 protocols. Web Browser access. 1 terminal server port.500 alarm points. 8 control relays. 32 ping targets. multi-user access. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. 2 analog inputs. Fresno. NetGuardian 480: RTU monitors 80 alarm points. 4 controls. Remote Alarm Block 176N: Wire-wrap alarm block monitors 176 alarm points. standing alarm list. Web Browser access. Call 1-800-622-3314 for price and ordering information 18 . reports in SNMP. and 8 analog inputs to SNMP. reports in SNMP. alarm history logging. reports in SNMP. 4 terminal server ports. Available SNMP software: T/MonXM SNMP Agent Software Module: Forwards T/Mon alarms in SNMP. displays as standard T/Mon alarms. reports in SNMP T/Mon LNX: Full-featured alarm master for up to 1 million alarm points. Features pager and email alarm notification. T/Mon SLIM: Light capacity regional alarm master.dpstelecom. standing alarm list and alarm history logging. 8 terminal server ports.

DPS Telecom Guarantees Your Success — or Your Money Back When you’re choosing a network monitoring vendor. 2. live Web demonstration of SNMP monitoring solutions with the T/Mon Remote Alarm Monitoring System. There’s dangers you want to avoid — and there’s also opportunities to improve your remote site maintenance that you don’t want to miss. no-risk. and check for client testimonials. software.com/case-studies for some examples. compare a few features. specifications. Network monitoring is a highly technical subject. Resources are misused: If you’re not fully informed about your options for mediating legacy protocols to SNMP. add some configuration and you’re done. Opportunities are missed: If you install a new network monitoring system today. there’s a lot more you need to know. Many telecoms design what they think is a state-of-the-art monitoring system — and then find that their technology is actually a generation behind. find a few vendors. Implementation time is drawn out: It’s going to take longer than you think. .SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. (Check out www. And anytime you are trying to do something you’ve never done before.dpstelecom.com Reality Check: Why You Need Help With Your SNMP Implementation I SNMP network alarm monitoring system can seem deceptively easy — you just look on the Web. What to Do Next Before you make a decision about your SNMP monitoring. Your SNMP monitoring solution is backed by a 30-day. Ask the hard questions. features and benefits . Get the information you need — register now for a free. . specific applications. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. right? MPLEMENtING AN The truth is. Don’t take a sales rep’s word that his company can do custom development. Ask how many systems they’ve worked with. You’ll get complete information on hardware.dpstelecom. If you’re dissatisfied for any reason. Above all.com/tmon-webdemo. Rushing into a systemwide replacement when you could have integrated can cost you hundreds of thousands of dollars. how many protocols they can integrate to SNMP. you’re committing your company to that system for as long as 8 to 10 years.dpstelecom. 3. don’t take chances. Be skeptical. you are bound to make mistakes — mistakes that extend your time and your budget beyond their limits. look for experience. Test your DPS monitoring solution at your site for 30 days. and you have a lot to learn if you want a successful implementation. utility telecoms. and transportation companies. Call 1-800-622-3314 today to schedule your free Web demo of SNMP monitoring solutions — or register on the Web at www. money-back guarantee. 19 . Fresno. You’re never taking any risk when you work with DPS Telecom. developing a network monitoring system on your own is one of the riskiest things you can do. DPS Telecom has created hundreds of successful SNMP monitoring implementations for telecoms. There’s no obligation to buy — no high-pressure salesmen — just straightforward information to help you make the best decision about your network monitoring. you may replace equipment that could have been integrated into your new system. just send it back for a full refund. plus you’ll be able to ask questions and get straight answers.) DPS Telecom monitoring solutions are proven performers under real-world conditions. Here are some of the typical problems you might face if you don’t get expert advice when you’re designing your system: 1.

Fresno.dpstelecom. Pathnet About the Author Marshall DenHartog has 12 years’ experience working with SNMP. including designing private MIB extensions.com “I would personally like to let you know how beneficial the installation of the SNMP responder was to the mission of our department.com 1-800-622-3314 US $36.95 “We protect your network like your business depends on it”TM . creating SNMP systems for multiple platforms. www.” —Todd Matherne. EATEL “It is hard to find companies with the intelligence and aptitude to meet the customer’s exact needs. and I believe that is what DPS is all about.SNMP Tutorial • DPS Telecom • 4955 East Yale Avenue. California 93727 • (800) 622-3314 • Fax (559) 454-1688 • www. This migration will allow us not only to monitor all alarms in one spot but also build extensive collection reports of our whole network.” —Lee Wells. We were looking for a way to integrate our local ILEC region in HP OpenView without a major network change. DenHartog’s experience with both the theoretical and practical sides of SNMP have equipped him to write a straightforward guide to SNMP for real-world use.dpstelecom. The SNMP responder was the answer. and developing SNMP-based monitoring for several nationwide networks.