SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEBANGSAAN KULIM 09000 KULIM,KEDAH DARUL AMAN INFORMATION COMMUNICATION AND TECHNOLOGY (3765/2) THE

LATEST DEVELOPMENT IN NETWORKS AND COMMUNICATION AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
Construct :S07 Current and Future Development in Networks and Communications Aspect : S07.1 Latest Development in Networks and Communication NAME : AKASHAH BIN OSMAN I/C : 920115-07-5419 FORM : 5B

1.0 INTRODUCTION COMPUTER NETWORKS AND COMMUNICATION
Computer networking is the engineering discipline concerned with communication between computer systems or devices. Networking, routers, routing protocols, and networking over the public Internet have their specifications defined in documents called RFCs Computer networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of telecommunications, computer science, information technology and/or computer engineering. Computer networks rely heavily upon the theoretical and practical application of these scientific and engineering disciplines. All networks are interconnected to allow communication with a variety of different kinds of media, including twisted-pair copper wire cable, coaxial cable, optical fiber, power lines and various wireless technologies.The devices can be separated by a few meters (e.g. via Bluetooth) or nearly unlimited distances (e.g. via the interconnections of the Internet

2.0 MOBILE COMPUTING 2.1 DEFINITION
Mobile Computing is a generic term describing your ability to use technology 'untethered', that is not physically connected, or in remote or mobile (non static) environments. The term is evolved in modern usage such that it requires that the mobile computing activity be connected wirelessly to and through the internet or to and through a private network. This connection ties the mobile device to centrally located information and/or application software through the use of battery powered, portable, and wireless computing and communication devices. This includes devices like laptops with wireless LAN or wireless WAN technology, smart mobile phones, wearable computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) with Bluetooth or IRDA interfaces.

2.2 SPECIFICATION,SERVICES AND FREQUENCIES OF MOBILE COMPUTING
Mobile computing comes in many forms.One of them is in type is 3G phones.The specifications of these can be seen in phones such as Iphone 3GS.Phones like these features specifications like 3G,Bluetooth and Infrared. International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000), better known as 3G or 3rd Generation, is a family of standards for wireless communications defined by the International Telecommunication Union, which includes GSM EDGE, UMTS, and CDMA2000 as well as DECT and WiMAX. Services include widearea wireless voice telephone, video calls, and wireless data, all in a mobile environment. Compared to 2G and 2.5G services, 3G allows simultaneous use of speech and data services and higher data rates (up to 14.4 Mbit/s on the downlink and 5.8 Mbit/s on the uplink with HSPA+). Thus, 3G networks enable network operators to offer users a wider range of more advanced services while achieving greater network capacity through improved spectral efficiency. Bluetooth is an open wireless protocol for exchanging data over short distances from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks (PANs). It was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS232 data cables. It can connect several devices, overcoming problems of synchronization. Bluetooth uses a radio technology called frequency-hopping spread spectrum, which chops up the data being sent and transmits chunks of it on up to 79 frequencies. In its basic mode, the modulation is Gaussian frequency-shift keying (GFSK). It can achieve a gross data rate of 1 Mb/s. Bluetooth provides a way to connect and exchange information between devices such as mobile phones, telephones, laptops, personal computers, printers, Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, digital cameras, and video game consoles through a secure, globally unlicensed Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) 2.4 GHz short-range radio frequency bandwidth. The Bluetooth specifications are developed and licensed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). The Bluetooth SIG consists of companies in the areas of telecommunication, computing, networking, and consumer electronics. . The phone like the Iphone3GS also provide multiple services like MMS,VMS and Instant Messaging [IM]. Multimedia Messaging Service, or MMS, is a telecommunications standard for sending messages that include multimedia objects (images, audio, video, rich text). MMS is an extension of the SMS standard, allowing longer message lengths and using WAP to display the content. Its most popular use is sending photographs from camera-equipped handsets, although it is also popular as a method of delivering ringtones as well. The standard is developed by the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA),

although during development it was part of the 3GPP and WAP groups. A videophone is a telephone with a video screen, and is capable of full duplex (bi-directional) video and audio transmissions for communication between people in real-time. The name videophone is not as standardized as its earlier counterpart, the telephone, resulting in a variety of names and terms being used worldwide, and even within the same region or country. Videophones are also known as video telephones and often by an early trademarked name "Picturephone", which was the world's first commercial videophone produced in volume. The compound name 'videophone' entered into general use approximately 1950,[1] although 'video telephone' likely entered the lexicon earlier after the noun 'video' was coined in 1935.[2]Videophone calls differ from videoconferencing in that they expect to serve individuals, not groups. However that distinction is becoming increasingly blurred with technology improvements such as increased bandwidth, which can allow for multiple parties on a call. Videophone calls (noun) are also referred to as videocalls, with the related verb form similarly taking videocalling.Videophones are particularly useful to the deaf who can use them with sign language or with a video relay service, and also to those with mobility issues or those who are located in distant places and are in need of telemedical or tele-educational services. Mobile Instant Messaging (MIM) is a presence enabled messaging service that aims to transpose the desktop messaging experience to the usage scenario of being on the move. While several of the core ideas of the desktop experience on one hand apply to a connected mobile device, others do not: Users usually only look at their phone's screen — presence status changes might occur under different circumstances as happens at the desktop, and several functional limits exist based on the fact that the vast majority of mobile communication devices are chosen by their users to fit into the palm of their hand. Some of the form factor and mobility related differences need to be taken into account in order to create a really adequate, powerful and yet convenient mobile experience: radio bandwidth, memory size, availability of media formats, keypad based input, screen output, CPU performance and battery power are core issues that desktop device users and even nomadic users with connected network. The frequencies of mobile computing differs depending on the type of the mobile computing itself, in this case the Iphone 3GS uses a processor of speed uses a 600-MHZ processor.

3.0 INTERNET TECHNOLOGY AND SERVICES 3.1 VoIP
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a general term for a family of transmission technologies for delivery of voice communications over IP networks such as the Internet or other packet-switched networks. Other terms frequently encountered and synonymous with VoIP are IP telephony, Internet telephony, voice over broadband (VoBB), broadband telephony, and broadband phone.Internet telephony refers to communications services— voice, facsimile, and/or voice-messaging applications—that are transported via the Internet, rather than the public switched telephone network (PSTN). The basic steps involved in originating an Internet telephone call are conversion of the analog voice signal to digital format and compression/translation of the signal into Internet protocol (IP) packets for transmission over the Internet; the process is reversed at the receiving end.VoIP systems employ session control protocols to control the set-up and tear-down of calls as well as audio codecs which encode speech allowing transmission over an IP network as digital audio via an audio stream. Codec use is varied between different implementations of VoIP (and often a range of codecs are used); some implementations rely on narrowband and compressed speech, while others support high fidelity stereo codecs.

3.2 BLOG
A blog (a contraction of the term "weblog") is a type of website, usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse-chronological order. "Blog" can also be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog.Many blogs provide commentary or news on a particular subject; others function as more personal online diaries. A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, Web pages, and other media related to its topic. The ability for readers to leave comments in an interactive format is an important part of many blogs. Most blogs are primarily textual, although some focus on art (artlog), photographs (photoblog), sketches (sketchblog), videos (vlog), music (MP3 blog), and audio (podcasting). Micro-blogging is another type of blogging, featuring very short

posts.As of December 2007, blog search engine Technorati was tracking more than 112 million blogs.

4.0 TYPES OF NETWORK 4.1 PAN
A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer devices (including telephones and personal digital assistants) close to one's person. The devices may or may not belong to the person in question. The reach of a PAN is typically a few meters. PANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves (intrapersonal communication), or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet (an uplink).Personal area networks may be wired with computer buses such as USB and FireWire. A wireless personal area network (WPAN) can also be made possible with network technologies such as IrDA, Bluetooth, UWB, Z-Wave and ZigBee.

4.2 VPN
A virtual private network (VPN) is a computer network in which some of the links between nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger networks (such as the Internet), as opposed to running across a single private network. The Link Layer protocols of the virtual network are said to be tunneled through the transport network. One common application is to secure communications through the public Internet, but a VPN does not need to have explicit security features such as authentication or content encryption. For example, VPNs can also be used to separate the traffic of different user communities over an underlying network with strong security features, or to provide access to a network via customized or private routing mechanisms.VPN service providers may offer best-effort performance, or may have a defined service level agreement (SLA) with their VPN customers. Generally, a VPN has a topology more complex than point-to-point.

4.3 WLAN
A wireless LAN (WLAN) is a wireless local area network that links two or more computers or devices using spread-spectrum or OFDM modulation technology based to enable communication between devices in a limited area. This gives users the mobility to move around within a broad coverage area and still be connected to the network. For the home user, wireless has become popular due to ease of installation, and location freedom with the gaining popularity of laptops. Public businesses such as coffee shops or malls have begun to offer wireless access to their customers; some are even provided as a free service. Large wireless network projects are being put up in many major cities: New York City, for instance, has begun a pilot program to cover all five boroughs of the city with wireless Internet access.

4.4 WIMAX
WiMAX, meaning Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a telecommunications technology that provides wireless transmission of data using a variety of transmission modes, from point-to-multipoint links to portable and fully mobile internet access. The technology provides up to 3 Mbit/s broadband speed without the need for cables. The technology is based on the IEEE 802.16 standard (also called Broadband Wireless Access). The name "WiMAX" was created by the WiMAX Forum, which was formed in June 2001 to promote conformity and interoperability of the standard. The forum describes WiMAX as "a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL".

5.0 CONCLUSION
As a brief conclusion, computer network and communication are expanding rapidly each and everyday making sharing of information trilion times better before they exists.Mobile computing n is now getting edgier by the day.New technologies are being implemented,tested and apply in mobile computing making us and the future another step closer.The internet is also getting better along the lines of the information age.Meanwhile, types of network

available for us adding it on top of making computer networks and communicatios the new man’s best friend.

REFEENCE: Book Shelly Cashman, S Vermant (2004), Thomson Course Technology, Discovery Computer Internet
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=WiMAX&printable=yes http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wireless_LAN&printable=yes http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Virtual_private_network&printable=yes http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Personal_area_network&printable=yes http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Blog&printable=yes http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VoIP http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_computing http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_networking http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=3G&printable=yes http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bluetooth&printable=yes http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Multimedia_Messaging_Service&printable=yes http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Videophone&printable=yes http://www.gadgetreview.com/tag/iphone-3gs