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Construct :S07 Current and Future Development in Networks

and Communications

Aspect : S07.1 Latest Development in Networks and



I/C : 920115-07-5419



Computer networking is the engineering discipline concerned with communication between

computer systems or devices. Networking, routers, routing protocols, and networking over the
public Internet have their specifications defined in documents called RFCs Computer
networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of telecommunications, computer
science, information technology and/or computer engineering. Computer networks rely
heavily upon the theoretical and practical application of these scientific and engineering
disciplines. All networks are interconnected to allow communication with a variety of
different kinds of media, including twisted-pair copper wire cable, coaxial cable, optical fiber,
power lines and various wireless technologies.The devices can be separated by a few meters
(e.g. via Bluetooth) or nearly unlimited distances (e.g. via the interconnections of the Internet



Mobile Computing is a generic term describing your ability to use technology 'untethered',
that is not physically connected, or in remote or mobile (non static) environments. The term is
evolved in modern usage such that it requires that the mobile computing activity be
connected wirelessly to and through the internet or to and through a private network. This
connection ties the mobile device to centrally located information and/or application software
through the use of battery powered, portable, and wireless computing and communication
devices. This includes devices like laptops with wireless LAN or wireless WAN technology,
smart mobile phones, wearable computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs)
with Bluetooth or IRDA interfaces.

Mobile computing comes in many forms.One of them is in type is 3G phones.The

specifications of these can be seen in phones such as Iphone 3GS.Phones like these features
specifications like 3G,Bluetooth and Infrared. International Mobile Telecommunications-2000
(IMT-2000), better known as 3G or 3rd Generation, is a family of standards for wireless
communications defined by the International Telecommunication Union, which includes
GSM EDGE, UMTS, and CDMA2000 as well as DECT and WiMAX. Services include wide-
area wireless voice telephone, video calls, and wireless data, all in a mobile environment.
Compared to 2G and 2.5G services, 3G allows simultaneous use of speech and data services
and higher data rates (up to 14.4 Mbit/s on the downlink and 5.8 Mbit/s on the uplink with
HSPA+). Thus, 3G networks enable network operators to offer users a wider range of more
advanced services while achieving greater network capacity through improved spectral
efficiency. Bluetooth is an open wireless protocol for exchanging data over short distances
from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks (PANs). It was originally
conceived as a wireless alternative to RS232 data cables. It can connect several devices,
overcoming problems of synchronization. Bluetooth uses a radio technology called
frequency-hopping spread spectrum, which chops up the data being sent and transmits chunks
of it on up to 79 frequencies. In its basic mode, the modulation is Gaussian frequency-shift
keying (GFSK). It can achieve a gross data rate of 1 Mb/s. Bluetooth provides a way to
connect and exchange information between devices such as mobile phones, telephones,
laptops, personal computers, printers, Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, digital
cameras, and video game consoles through a secure, globally unlicensed Industrial, Scientific
and Medical (ISM) 2.4 GHz short-range radio frequency bandwidth. The Bluetooth
specifications are developed and licensed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). The
Bluetooth SIG consists of companies in the areas of telecommunication, computing,
networking, and consumer electronics. . The phone like the Iphone3GS also provide multiple
services like MMS,VMS and Instant Messaging [IM]. Multimedia Messaging Service, or
MMS, is a telecommunications standard for sending messages that include multimedia
objects (images, audio, video, rich text). MMS is an extension of the SMS standard, allowing
longer message lengths and using WAP to display the content. Its most popular use is sending
photographs from camera-equipped handsets, although it is also popular as a method of
delivering ringtones as well. The standard is developed by the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA),
although during development it was part of the 3GPP and WAP groups. A videophone is a
telephone with a video screen, and is capable of full duplex (bi-directional) video and audio
transmissions for communication between people in real-time. The name videophone is not
as standardized as its earlier counterpart, the telephone, resulting in a variety of names and
terms being used worldwide, and even within the same region or country. Videophones are
also known as video telephones and often by an early trademarked name "Picturephone",
which was the world's first commercial videophone produced in volume. The compound
name 'videophone' entered into general use approximately 1950,[1] although 'video telephone'
likely entered the lexicon earlier after the noun 'video' was coined in 1935.[2]Videophone calls
differ from videoconferencing in that they expect to serve individuals, not groups. However
that distinction is becoming increasingly blurred with technology improvements such as
increased bandwidth, which can allow for multiple parties on a call. Videophone calls (noun)
are also referred to as videocalls, with the related verb form similarly taking
videocalling.Videophones are particularly useful to the deaf who can use them with sign
language or with a video relay service, and also to those with mobility issues or those who are
located in distant places and are in need of telemedical or tele-educational services. Mobile
Instant Messaging (MIM) is a presence enabled messaging service that aims to transpose the
desktop messaging experience to the usage scenario of being on the move. While several of
the core ideas of the desktop experience on one hand apply to a connected mobile device,
others do not: Users usually only look at their phone's screen — presence status changes
might occur under different circumstances as happens at the desktop, and several functional
limits exist based on the fact that the vast majority of mobile communication devices are
chosen by their users to fit into the palm of their hand. Some of the form factor and mobility
related differences need to be taken into account in order to create a really adequate, powerful
and yet convenient mobile experience: radio bandwidth, memory size, availability of media
formats, keypad based input, screen output, CPU performance and battery power are core
issues that desktop device users and even nomadic users with connected network. The
frequencies of mobile computing differs depending on the type of the mobile computing
itself, in this case the Iphone 3GS uses a processor of speed uses a 600-MHZ processor.

3.1 VoIP

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a general term for a family of transmission
technologies for delivery of voice communications over IP networks such as the Internet or
other packet-switched networks. Other terms frequently encountered and synonymous with
VoIP are IP telephony, Internet telephony, voice over broadband (VoBB), broadband
telephony, and broadband phone.Internet telephony refers to communications services—
voice, facsimile, and/or voice-messaging applications—that are transported via the Internet,
rather than the public switched telephone network (PSTN). The basic steps involved in
originating an Internet telephone call are conversion of the analog voice signal to digital
format and compression/translation of the signal into Internet protocol (IP) packets for
transmission over the Internet; the process is reversed at the receiving end.VoIP systems
employ session control protocols to control the set-up and tear-down of calls as well as audio
codecs which encode speech allowing transmission over an IP network as digital audio via an
audio stream. Codec use is varied between different implementations of VoIP (and often a
range of codecs are used); some implementations rely on narrowband and compressed speech,
while others support high fidelity stereo codecs.

3.2 BLOG

A blog (a contraction of the term "weblog") is a type of website, usually maintained by an

individual with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such
as graphics or video. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse-chronological order. "Blog"
can also be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog.Many blogs provide
commentary or news on a particular subject; others function as more personal online diaries.
A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, Web pages, and other media
related to its topic. The ability for readers to leave comments in an interactive format is an
important part of many blogs. Most blogs are primarily textual, although some focus on art
(artlog), photographs (photoblog), sketches (sketchblog), videos (vlog), music (MP3 blog),
and audio (podcasting). Micro-blogging is another type of blogging, featuring very short
posts.As of December 2007, blog search engine Technorati was tracking more than 112
million blogs.


4.1 PAN

A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among
computer devices (including telephones and personal digital assistants) close to one's person.
The devices may or may not belong to the person in question. The reach of a PAN is typically
a few meters. PANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves
(intrapersonal communication), or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet
(an uplink).Personal area networks may be wired with computer buses such as USB and
FireWire. A wireless personal area network (WPAN) can also be made possible with
network technologies such as IrDA, Bluetooth, UWB, Z-Wave and ZigBee.

4.2 VPN

A virtual private network (VPN) is a computer network in which some of the links between
nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger networks (such as the
Internet), as opposed to running across a single private network. The Link Layer protocols of
the virtual network are said to be tunneled through the transport network. One common
application is to secure communications through the public Internet, but a VPN does not need
to have explicit security features such as authentication or content encryption. For example,
VPNs can also be used to separate the traffic of different user communities over an
underlying network with strong security features, or to provide access to a network via
customized or private routing mechanisms.VPN service providers may offer best-effort
performance, or may have a defined service level agreement (SLA) with their VPN
customers. Generally, a VPN has a topology more complex than point-to-point.
4.3 WLAN

A wireless LAN (WLAN) is a wireless local area network that links two or more computers
or devices using spread-spectrum or OFDM modulation technology based to enable
communication between devices in a limited area. This gives users the mobility to move
around within a broad coverage area and still be connected to the network.

For the home user, wireless has become popular due to ease of installation, and location
freedom with the gaining popularity of laptops. Public businesses such as coffee shops or
malls have begun to offer wireless access to their customers; some are even provided as a free
service. Large wireless network projects are being put up in many major cities: New York
City, for instance, has begun a pilot program to cover all five boroughs of the city with
wireless Internet access.


WiMAX, meaning Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a

telecommunications technology that provides wireless transmission of data using a variety of
transmission modes, from point-to-multipoint links to portable and fully mobile internet
access. The technology provides up to 3 Mbit/s broadband speed without the need for cables.
The technology is based on the IEEE 802.16 standard (also called Broadband Wireless
Access). The name "WiMAX" was created by the WiMAX Forum, which was formed in June
2001 to promote conformity and interoperability of the standard. The forum describes
WiMAX as "a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless
broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL".


As a brief conclusion, computer network and communication are expanding rapidly each and
everyday making sharing of information trilion times better before they exists.Mobile
computing n is now getting edgier by the day.New technologies are being implemented,tested
and apply in mobile computing making us and the future another step closer.The internet is
also getting better along the lines of the information age.Meanwhile, types of network
available for us adding it on top of making computer networks and communicatios the new
man’s best friend.



Shelly Cashman, S Vermant (2004), Thomson Course Technology, Discovery